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Radiation Leak at Russia's NIIAR


FLASH: Report of a radiation leak yesterday at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (NIIAR) in Dimitrovgrad, Russia!
Panic began in the city where all iodine-containing preparations were sold out in the city pharmacies.

12:26 PM · Feb 8, 2020

Quote:Sources report that a radiation leak occurred at the NIIAR yesterday, a panic began in the city. The authorities assure that the radioactive background is within normal limits.
Today, part of the staff of the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (NIIAR) in Dimitrovgrad did not go to work, and all iodine-containing preparations were sold out in pharmacies. This was announced by the deputy of the City Council Vladislav Khvorov .

- There is information that yesterday there was a slight pollution of the snow due to the leakage of a radioactive substance. However, employees of the enterprise report that the radiation level is not exceeded. Yesterday, city residents were asked not to leave their homes. Today, due to an emergency, some of the employees in RIAR did not go to work, ”Khvorov described the situation.

An activist from Samara, Alexei Nosorev , said that in a chat about traffic accidents in the Samara region, information appeared today that a radiation leak had occurred in Dimitrovgrad. They wrote in a chat that there was a “spill” at the NIIAR reactor, and the information was classified.

The Ulyanovsk media also reported that yesterday, due to the leakage of radioactive substances at RIAR, the children were not allowed to leave the city on time. According to official data, now the radioactive background in RIAR itself and beyond does not exceed the norm.

In Russian

Google translate

Quote:Dimitrovgrad could be quarantined after radiation
There is information that the city is "sealed" until February 10, inclusive
In Dimitrovgrad, Ulyanovsk Region, quarantine could be announced in connection with the release of radiation at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors. This RIA SM-News source said the agency.
According to the source, an accident accidentally occurred in RIAR, due to which radiation was released into the atmosphere. It is likely that radiation excess sensors could work 45-65 km from the city. It is reported that all the employees of the center could be left overnight in the building, and the police were cordoned off by the RIAR.

It is possible that all public organizations quarantined until February 10.

According to the SSC RIAR, on February 3, during the inspection, employees recorded minimal pollution of the industrial zone's snow cover. The press service of the center noted that the level of pollution did not affect the general radiation background at all, all indicators remain normal.
В Димитровграде произошла утечки радиации. Жители раскупили препараты с йодом
Февраль 04, 2020
зоя симбирская

In Dimitrovgrad, radiation leaks occurred. Residents bought up drugs with iodine
  February 04, 2020
Zoya Simbirskaya
This is from 2017****
Water in Six Villages in Dimitrovgrad Municipality Has Elevated Alpha Radiation

16 May 2017
На НИИАРе нештатная ситуация. Жителей Димитровграда просят не выходить из домов

Сегодня при проведении планового ежедневного утреннего мониторинга методом приборного контроля на территории ГНЦ НИИАР обнаружено небольшое загрязнение снежного покрова. Немного обычного повышен фон радиации, но в пределах нормы

Google translate

Quote:NIIAR emergency situation. Dimitrovgrad residents are asked not to leave their homes

  Today, during the planned daily morning monitoring using the instrument control method, a slight pollution of the snow cover was detected on the territory of the SSC RIAR. The background of radiation is slightly increased, but within normal limits.
Poison in the Earth: A special report.; Nuclear Roulette for Russia: Burying Uncontained Waste
By William J. Broad
Nov. 21, 1994
For more than three decades, Russian scientists have disclosed, the Soviet Union and now Russia secretly pumped billions of gallons of atomic waste directly into the earth. They say the practice continues today.

Though the Russians defend the practice as safe, it is at odds with accepted global standards for nuclear waste disposal and is contrary to what they have previously said they were doing. The disclosure has set off a debate among experts over the likely consequences of the radioactive injections, which some experts say represent a new kind of nuclear danger that might haunt the planet for centuries.

The Russians told a small group of Western experts that Moscow had injected about half of all the nuclear waste it ever produced into the ground at three widely dispersed sites, all thoroughly wet and all near major rivers.

The injections violate the accepted rules of nuclear-waste disposal, which require it to be isolated in impermeable containers for thousands of years. The Russian scientists claim the practice is safe because the wastes have been injected under layers of shale and clay, which in theory cut them off from the Earth's surface.
But already the wastes at one site have leaked beyond the expected range and "spread a great distance," the Russians told the small group of international scientists, who were handpicked to receive the news. The Russians did not say whether the distance was meters or kilometers or whether the poisons had reached the surface.

There is a lot more than this happening at this research site...

Membership: https://www.nucnet.org/news/russia-compl...-10-4-2019

Russian state-owned nuclear fuel company Tvel has completed the first phase of accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) testing in the MIR research reactor at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors in Dimitrovgrad in southeastern Siberia.

Two experimental ATF fuel assemblies were loaded into the reactor in January. Each fuel assembly contained 24 fuel elements with four different combinations of cladding and fuel matrix materials.

After the first irradiation cycle, both assemblies were removed from the reactor. Tvel said preliminary examination of the assemblies, performed onsite by a team from the Bochvar Institute for Inorganic Materials, a Moscow-based Tvel research facility, revealed neither changes in the fuel rods’ geometry, nor damage to the cladding...
"The Russian scientists claim the practice is safe because the wastes have been injected under layers of shale and clay, which in theory cut them off from the Earth's surface."


What combination of wastes? Wow. Look at WIPP and Westinghouse Fuel Fabrication Facility drum explosions...

I mean... What if Russia created a China syndrome and things like the Fukushima earthquake were a result... Or worse.

It would be a great movie...

I can see it now...
The story of the Russian official claiming fake news, is referring to the 8 second video traversing the web (perhaps intentionally) whereas a citizen films a chemical or gas explosion, the publisher then claiming it's this incident within this thread. The gov official uses the fake news to gloss over the real event, concluding that the radiation is normal, which it now is.
whether the poisons had reached the surface.

Decades or centuries might pass before scientists know whether the injections are calamitous or benign.

Some American experts say that in all likelihood things will work out favorably but that close study is prudent. "Does it have the potential for impacting the environment in Russia and the world?" said Dr. Clyde W. Frank, a top official of the Energy Department. "We're a long way from understanding that. We're dealing with a long-term situation."

From HHD's link above,

Poison in the Earth: A special report.; Nuclear Roulette for Russia: Burying Uncontained Waste
By William J. Broad
Nov. 21, 1994
Quote:But others say the injections could be one of the deadliest assaults ever on the earth's environment. "Far and away, this is the largest and most careless nuclear practice that the human race has ever suffered," said Dr. Henry W. Kendall, a Nobel laureate in physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who learned of the injections while advising the Federal Government. "It's just an enormous scale of irresponsibility."

Repeated efforts to reach Nikolai N. Yegorov, a high official of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy and leader of the delegation that made the disclosure, were unsuccessful.

The Russian experts say they began injecting the waste as a way to avoid the kind of surface-storage disasters that began to plague them in the 1950's. But by any measure, the injections were one of the cold war's darkest secrets. Moscow said nothing of large injections and dissembled publicly by claiming to stand by accepted standards for radioactive waste disposal. Moreover, the injections are yet another environmental black mark against Moscow, which before the disclosures was already being criticized for environmental recklessness.

The three sites are at Dimitrovgrad near the Volga River, Tomsk near the Ob River, and Krasnoyarsk on the Yenisei River. The Volga flows into the Caspian Sea and the Ob and Yenisei into the Arctic Ocean.

The amount of radioactivity injected by the Russians is up to three billion curies. By comparison, the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant released about 50 million curies of radiation, mostly in short-lived isotopes that decayed in a few months. The accident at Three Mile Island discharged about 50 curies.

A curie is the amount of radiation given off by one gram of radium and, in any nuclear material, is equal to the disintegration of 37 billion atoms per second. An old-style luminous watch dial with 12 radium dots emitted about three one-thousandths of a curie of radiation.

The injected wastes include cesium-137, with a half life of 30 years, and strontium-90, with a half life of 28 years and a bad reputation because it binds readily with human bones. A half life is the time it takes for half of a radioactive substance to decay into atoms that are less complex and often less harmful to humans.

The Russians are working with the Department of Energy, which runs America's nuclear complex, to try to better predict how far and fast the radioactive waste is likely to spread through aquifers.

At best, the Russian waste may stay underground long enough to be rendered largely harmless by the process of radioactive decay.

At worst, it might leak to the surface and produce regional calamities in Russia and areas downstream along the rivers. If the radioactivity spread through the world's oceans, experts say, it might prompt a global rise in birth defects and cancer deaths.

The benign scenario is more likely than the calamitous one, many experts say. But uncertainties persist, partly because there are no comparative data on the large-scale injection of radioactive waste, diminishing the accuracy of forecasts. The Norm Safely Storing Radioactive Waste

The alchemy at the heart of nuclear reactors is the main source of the world's radioactive waste. Uranium atoms split by nuclear fission form hundreds of different types of fragments, most of which are radioactive. Examples are cesium and strontium. In addition, atoms of uranium-238 can capture the speeding subatomic particles known as neutrons and metamorphose into heavier elements like plutonium-239, which is also radioactive.

Liquid waste arises when factories take highly irradiated fuel rods and mine them for such valuables as plutonium, which can fuel nuclear bombs and reactors. The first step is to dissolve a fuel rod in acid. After the plutonium is extracted, the leftovers constitute a witches' brew of poisons.

The mining procedure is done by or for most advanced nuclear states, including France, Italy, Japan and Switzerland. The United States, which eschews the reprocessing of civilian fuel rods, mined military ones during the cold war.

At the start of the nuclear era America injected some of its liquid waste into the ground at its Hanford Reservation in Washington state, but the radiation levels were low and only one of nine wells reached down to the water table, said Dr. Donald D. Wodrich, an official of the Westinghouse Hanford Co., which manages the site. In terms of curies, he said, the total radiation was "tens of thousands or less."

A different method was tried at the Oak Ridge complex in Tennessee. Liquid waste was mixed with cement and injected deep into shale formations, where the mix spread out into thin pancakes. Steven L. Wyatt, an Oak Ridge spokesman, said some 1.4 million curies of radioactive waste were injected between 1959 and 1984, after which the method was dropped because of environmental worries and the discovery of radioactivity in observation wells.

Save these exceptions, the United States has stored its liquid radioactive waste above ground, mainly in big steel tanks, awaiting solidification and permanent disposal -- the preferred method worldwide. The Hanford site in Washington has 177 tanks holding 57 million gallons of waste with a strength of about 360 million curies.

Eventually, all the waste is to be solidified into glass or ceramic blocks and stored underground in dry, man-made caverns. The candidate site in the United States is a desert ridge in southern Nevada known as Yucca Mountain, which in theory is to be honeycombed with storage tunnels and open for business in 2010. By American law, the waste is to be isolated from ground water and the general environment for 10,000 years, until radioactive decay has rendered them less hazardous.

It had always been thought that virtually all nations that generate highly radioactive waste planned similar methods of disposal. In general, the aim of all storage is to keep waste away from ground water and the possible contamination of people. The Rumors Radiation Dangers Were Hushed Up

During the cold war, the Soviet Union made about 55,000 nuclear warheads, the vast majority with plutonium recovered from irradiated fuel rods. The Soviets mined both civil and military fuel rods and mixed the waste. Publicly, Soviet scientists said tests had been conducted of low-level waste injections, like those at Hanford, but declared the general goal of solidifying liquid radioactive waste for burial in deep, dry caverns.

As the cold war ended, the Russians began to detail a series of atomic tragedies. The Kyshtym disaster of 1957 turned out to be the explosion of a liquid-waste holding tank near the Urals that sent aloft a radioactive cloud 20 million curies strong. Lake Karachai, at the same site, was purposely filled with 120 million curies of radioactive waste, making it the most contaminated spot on the earth's surface.

Soon, rumors swirled in the Russian news media about large injections of radioactive wastes beneath the earth. In 1993, a group known as the Tomsk Ecological Initiative, based near one of the Siberian injection sites, said that major faults there were sending radioactive waste up toward surface waters, posing a grave "threat of contamination."

Despite rising angst, Russian scientists spoke increasingly freely about the injections, especially to sympathetic American peers. Talks took place between the Energy Department and its Russian counterpart, the Ministry of Atomic Energy.

Responding to such reports, the Energy Department began to analyze how poisoned water might move through the West Siberian basin, where Lake Karachai and two injection sites are located. Last April, an 80-page study was circulated within the Government by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, an arm of the Energy Department.

"Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union have resulted in massive contamination," it said, adding that the goal of the study was "to help determine future environmental and human impacts."

The study noted that the West Siberian basin, though very stable geologically, is also very wet, raising serious questions about its potential as a path for the distribution of watery poisons. The Disclosure Russian Scientists Shock Americans

In May, Russian scientists addressed a small scientific conference held at the Energy Department's Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in California. They were apparently ready to address the issue publicly amid growing rumors about the injections as Russian society became more open. The four-day international meeting was sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Energy Department and was specifically designed as a forum for the Russian disclosures, its organizers say. The Federal and private attendees were all experts in deep injection, which is studied and used globally for the disposal of non-radioactive waste.

Eleven Russians attended the meeting, including Mr. Yegorov, a Deputy Minister of the Atomic Ministry. They presented five papers written by more than a dozen scientists, among them E. I. Mikerin of the Atomic Ministry, E. V. Zakharova of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and A. I. Rybalchenko of the Scientific Research and Design Institute for Industrial Technology in Moscow.

The injections began more than three decades ago as a safety precaution after the Kyshtym disaster and a string of other calamities drove home the dangers of surface storage, the papers said. No mention was made of the method's cost, which is undoubtedly quite low compared with those usually used by Western nations. Four possible sites were investigated but only three were found to be geologically suitable.

The preferred stratum for deep injection, one paper said, was porous sandstone covered by abundant layers of shale or clay, which were seen as good barriers to upward migration. Possible leakage routes, it said, would be along "permeable tectonic faults" or sandy regions where wastes could filter through.

"The protection of the human population from the effects of radioactivity is the principal goal," one paper declared.

A main result of the injections, said another, is that "the health of thousands of people has been protected and their life spans prolonged."

The wells used to inject the material were described as working like oil or water wells, only in reverse, pumping fluids deep into the Earth, usually under high pressure, rather than pumping them out. The radioactive fluids went directly into underground formations -- not into cement mixes or steel liners.

It appears that in most cases shallow geological strata were used for low-level wastes and deeper strata for stronger ones, some of which are exceedingly hot. To a certain extent, spreading is controlled by pumping out water from peripheral areas, creating low-pressure spots that draw wastes in desired directions. The papers said water samples are routinely taken from wells outside the injection areas to hunt for signs of radioactivity.

Dimitrovgrad, a nuclear site near an arm of the Volga River, has the deepest injection wells of all. They range from about 3,600 feet down to 4,600 feet, or almost a mile.

Unexpectedly, a paper said, the waste injected into one zone "penetrated a thin limestone layer with formation fractures and spread a great distance." It gave no other details, such as whether the spread was horizontal or vertical or both. Nor were details given of the amounts injected at Dimitrovgrad, which Western experts said might be small.

The largest injections apparently took place at Tomsk, a sprawling nuclear complex. A Russian paper said they amounted to 30 million cubic meters, or about 8 billion gallons. In comparison, the reservoir in Central Park in New York City holds about 1 billion gallons. The injections were at depths of about 800 feet to about 1,200 feet.

The shallowest injections of all look place at Krasnoyarsk, near the east bank of the Yenisei River. Liquid waste was pumped to depths of about 650 feet and 1,400 feet deep. The total injected volume was 1.2 billion gallons.

In one well, temperatures reached 356 degrees Fahrenheit -- hot enough to melt lithium or sulfur -- before cooling was achieved by the addition of low-level liquid radioactive waste, a paper said.

The natural flow of water in the shallow strata at Krasnoyarsk is about 500 feet a year and in the deep strata is about 10 feet per year. These rates, a paper said, provide for "subsurface retention" of liquid wastes for 300 and 1,000 years respectively.

Overall, injections at the three sites disposed of "about half of all the radioactive materials produced in Russia as a result of activities of the atomic industry," one paper's abstract said.

The Russians gave the most sensitive numbers orally at the meeting or in private talks with American scientists.

The current radioactivity of the injected wastes is 1.45 billion curies, they said. That means that the original injections, before radioactive decay over the years and decades, had a strength of up to three billion curies of long-lived isotopes.

"They spilled their guts," recalled Dr. Michael G. Foley, a geologist at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory who attended the meeting. "It was incredible." The Aftermath Experts Divided On Ramifications

Predicting how the waste will move through the ground is a difficult job at best. There are many variables requiring complex calculations of geochemistry and hydrology. Experts, their opinions at times seemingly colored by their nuclear views, are divided on whether to expect sunny skies or fierce storms in the unfamiliar land of radioactive injection.

Dr. John A. Apps, a geochemist at Lawrence Berkeley who was cochairman of the meeting, said the Russian papers undoubtedly gave "a rosier perspective" than actually exists. "You can smell it," he said, noting oblique references in the papers to failed drill casings and the occasional use of existing wells rather than new ones drilled specifically for radioactive wastes.

Even so, he said he expected the injected waste is "not going to become a big issue." It might stay put, he said, and if leaks occur they might be controlled by containment dams or surface pumping. The biggest danger, he said, was that waste might find its way into ancient, buried river beds and spread undetected. "That would be a very serious problem," he said.

Dr. Apps added that environmental restoration of the injection sites was unlikely given the costs.

"One can conceive of immensely expensive efforts," he said. "But practically, the formations will be contaminated until the primary fission products are decayed -- five or six hundred years. Remediation would be prohibitively costly."

Dr. Frank of the Energy Department said the injections were not as troubling as they might seem since many companies and countries have safely pumped toxic substances -- though not radioactive ones -- into the ground. "Injection is not brain surgery," he said. "There's a lot of technical data associated with this kind of thing." With Russia, he said, the key questions are "Is it too much? Is it in the wrong place?"

B. Suzi Ruhl, president of the Legal Environmental Assistance Foundation, a public-interest law firm in Tallahassee, Fla., that monitors the injection of hazardous wastes in the United States, expressed shock at the shallowness of the Russian wells. In Florida, she said, injection wells were typically 1,500 to 2,000 feet deep, and in Texas they were up to 6,000 feet deep, or more than a mile.

"It's amazing," she said of the Russian injections. "I thought I'd heard everything."

Dr. Foley of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, who is a hydrologist, said the injection sites had to be studied carefully to assess their potential for dangerous leaks. A key issue is to what extent cesium and strontium will bind with local clays and minerals, he said, slowing their rate of spread through the local aquifers.

The existence of worrisome faults, as the Tomsk ecologists claimed, was unsurprising, he added, saying faults appear in any "block of rock big enough for a house or a building." Only further study would reveal their presence and whether they might block or promote the leakage of wastes.

The Russians, Dr. Foley said, have no computers powerful enough to do intensive modeling of local water-flow patterns. One item on the cooperative agenda is how to conduct such studies, he said.

Dr. Kendall of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who has received high-level Federal briefings on the injections, said there was reason for immediate worry. "They misjudged the geology, and some of the wastes are on the way back to the surface," he said, adding that there was a real possibility of the waste "getting into the food chain."

Ultimately, Dr. Kendall said, the magnitude of the danger would depend on the flow rates of underground waters. "Typically those flows are not very fast," he said. "But you can get surprises. That's the thing that scares you -- nasty surprises."

Dr. Charles B. Archambeau, a geophysicist at the University of Colorado, said: "It's down there and it's done. They put it close to these rivers -- that's the big danger -- that it will seep in there over time, that cancer rates and all kinds of other things will go up."

Whether hundreds, thousands or millions of people would be affected is uncertain because of the lack of waste-constituent data and the wealth of possible leakage scenarios. Experts say a big release is unlikely given the odds of slow leaks and the fact that waste potency will continue to drop because of radioactive decay.

Deadly or benign, the injections ultimately have to be judged in the context of the cold war and a bureaucracy in Moscow driven by a desperate desire to maintain parity with the West, said Dr. Apps of Lawrence Berkeley.

"A lot of compromises were made that will come back to haunt them," he said
"Poisson in the Earth.." Horror..

Just like main players setup against each other arms racing in hot and cold wars can't control the stuff they feel pressured to pull out of pandorra's box first..just so can't the ones that setted them up against eachother to begin with, for profit and ultimate power, control what their toy-country's under artificial but unendurable stress will change in to/what path/fractal of "countersolutions" they will see in front of them and what it will mean in time for the whole/all/themselves...and of course our chances of long-term sustainability..
Update on Dimitrovgrad radiation leak in Russia.

8th February 2020 - What is known about the institute where the radioactive release occurred


The Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (SSC RIAR) is located in the Ulyanovsk Region in the city of Dimitrovgrad, which residents themselves call the "atomic capital."

According to experts from the Business Online publication, the greatest danger to the Middle Volga region is the BOR-60 fast neutron reactor operating in NIIAR. And one of the main dangers lies in its coolant, which is sodium.

So, the summer of 1997, when an increased release of radioactive iodine-131 began at one of the NIIAR facilities, lasting almost three weeks. Moreover, on some days, the limit level for the emission of iodine-131 in the RIAR exceeded 15-20 times. Local residents continue to sue the university so far and require official documentation of what happened.

In April 2000, an emergency occurred at the VK-50 reactor, which threatened to turn into a "Chernobyl" catastrophe: one of the three emergency protection cassettes spontaneously plunged into the active zone due to a break in the lower thermal insulation of the actuator that fell on the emergency protection working body. The Gosatomnadzor inspection then suspended the VK-50 reactor.

In 2011, information on radiation emissions at the institute was already appearing on the network. Concerned residents called the city hall, saying that an accident had occurred at the RIAR base. But then the press service of the institution told Interfax that there was no accident.

In 2017, RBC wrote about the contamination of part of Russia with the radioactive isotope ruthenium-106. Then Europe suffered from it, which also received a dose of ruthenium. Experts argued that the production of ionizing radiation sources based on ruthenium-106 is in Dimitrovgrad.

On February 3, 2020, in Dimitrovgrad, on the territory of the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (SSC RIAR), radioactive pollution of snow was recorded. Now the background radiation level is also normal, according to the institution. Journalists investigating this case found that minor pollution with radium-226 is present only at site No. 1 of the institute itself, where the release occurred. Radium-226 is formed during the decay of uranium. The half-life of radium-226 is 1,600 years.


With this type of history, this site is just an accident waiting to happen!

"Now the background radiation level is also normal, according to the institution. Journalists investigating this case found that minor pollution with radium-226 is present only at site No. 1"

Which Journalist, and what news organisation do they represent?

This appears to be the usual nuclear industry propaganda, that is disseminated to calm the population.

Article: (In Russian, so you will need to use Google translate)

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Russia nuclear fuel cycle
Regarding reactor design, Rosatom has said it is keen to be involved in international projects for Generation IV reactor development and is keen to have international participation in fast neutron reactor development, as well as joint proposals for MOX fuel fabrication.
In April 2007 Red Star, a government-owned design bureau, and US company Thorium Power (now Lightbridge Corporation) agreed to collaborate on testing Lightbridge's seed and blanket fuel assemblies at the Kurchatov Institute with a view to using thorium-plutonium fuel in VVER-1000 reactors, partly in order to dispose of surplus military plutonium (see information papers on Fuel Fabrication and Military Warheads as a Source of Nuclear Fuel for details).
In 2006 the former working relationship with Kazakhstan in nuclear fuel supplies was rebuilt. Kazatomprom has agreed to a major long-term program of strategic cooperation with Russia in uranium and nuclear fuel supply, as well as development of small reactors, effectively reuniting the two countries' interests in future exports of nuclear fuel to China, Japan, Korea, the USA and Western Europe.
In June 2010 Rosatom signed a major framework agreement with the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) covering "nuclear energy development strategy, nuclear fuel cycle, development of next-generation reactors, future gas coolant reactor systems, radiation safety and nuclear material safety, prevention and emergency measures." Much of the collaboration will be focused on reprocessing and wastes, also sodium-cooled fast reactors. Subsequently EdF and Rosatom signed a further cooperation agreement covering R&D, nuclear fuel, and nuclear power plants - both existing and under construction....
Over two decades to about 2010 a Russian-US coordinating committee* was discussing building a GT-MHR prototype at Seversk, primarily for weapons plutonium disposition. Today OKBM is responsible to collaboration with China on HTR development, though NIIAR and Kurchatov Institute are also involved.* involving SC Rosatom, NIIAR, OKBM, RRC Kurchatov Institute and VNIINM on the Russian side and NNSA, General Atomics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the US side.

More. Plenty....

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