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22 Sept ALPS system revealed
#1
Fukushima ALPS System Secret Revealed http://www.fukuleaks.org/web/?p=15046
Pia
just pm me if needed.
 
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#2
(09-22-2015, 12:15 PM)piajensen Wrote: Fukushima ALPS System Secret Revealed http://www.fukuleaks.org/web/?p=15046

A proprietary ion exchange material called Nures® includes three proprietary ion exchange materials 

CsTreat® removes cesiums 
SrTreat® removes strontium 
CoTreat® removes cobalt

Here is some additional documentation 



USE OF NUCLIDE REMOVAL SYSTEM (NURES) FOR CLEAN-UP OF DIFFERENT WASTE LIQUIDS

https://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NEFW/...sa-eng.pdf

Radioactive waste liquids quite commonly contain so high concentrations of inactive salts, that the use of conventional ion exchangers, like zeolites or organic resins, is impossible. 

Highly selective ion exchangers can be utilized in many different ways. Most efficient way is to use columns with volume of 2-12 liters

Large number of selective ion exchangers have been studied and developed in different countries during recent past decades. However, almost all of them have stayed in laboratory or pilot scale without any real industrial applications. Only very few of them are commercially available for column operations. 

CsTreat® was originally developed for treatment of high salt (240 g/L, mostly NaNO3) evaporator concentrates at the Loviisa NPP in Finland. 

SrTreat® and CoTreat are 100 % inorganic ion exchangers based on titanium oxides. Typical use of SrTreat® and CoTreat is in granular form in column operation. Column sizes from less than one liter to 12 liters have been used

SrTreat® operates in pH range from neutral to alkaline conditions. As a rule the performance is improved when pH is increased. In high salt concentrations pH range above 9 is recommended. When the salt concentration is lower, reasonably good performance can be found in lower pH range, too. Calsium ions compete strongly with the strontium ion exchange, and like in the use of other ion exchangers high concentration of calsium will decrease the performance of SrTreat® in 90Sr removal.

CoTreat was developed for removal of radiocobalt, but it can also remove other corrosion or activation products; radionuclides such as 110mAg, 109Cd, 54Mn, 55,59Fe, and 65Zn. In low cobalt concentrations, i.e. <1,000 Bq/L, the operation pH is very narrow from 7 to 8. In higher concentrations, i.e. above 10 kBq/L, operation pH range from 5 to 10 is possible. Typically DF is from 100 to 1,000 for ionic cobalt.

In the summer of 1992, a different type of application for CsTreat® and SrTreat was taken into use at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute's (JAERI) Tokai site in Japan for the removal of 137Cs and 90Sr from alkaline reprocessing waste effluent.

EFFICIENCY OF FORTUM'S CSTREAT® AND SRTREAT® IN CESIUM AND STRONTIUM REMOVAL IN FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NPP

https://www.fortum.com/SiteCollectionDoc...lpaper.pdf

In Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP the ALPS™ was constructed to treat salt concentrates which comes from a reverse osmosis system. CsTreat® and SrTreat® were selected for removal of cesium and strontium cesium in this ALPS™. During operation cesium is removed with DF of over 8,3 million and strontium with DF about 165 million to reach required non-detectable levels. These values are among highest performances ever. Both CsTreat® and SrTreat® has shown very high capacity, and real values can be shown only after long time when ion exchange vessels has been changed. 

The capacity of CsTreat® and SrTreat® cannot be calculated in detail, since until January 21, 2014 and 40 369 m3 no vessel was changed. If total treatment is estimated for one 1 m3 vessel only, the capacities are 60,2 m3 /kg (40 369 BV) for CsTreat® and 45,9 m3 /kg (40 369 BV) for SrTreat® . When longer operation history exists, exact capacities can be calculated, but due to high capacities this will take long time.

The capacity of CsTreat® is well over ten times higher than capacity of silicotitanate and altogether about 1000 times higher than capacity of zeolite.



DEVELOPMENT OF A SELECTIVE CESIUM AND STRONTIUM REMOVAL SYSTEM FOR THE JAERI TOKAI-MURA SITE - LABORATORY TESTS

http://www.wmsym.org/archives/2000/pdf/60/60-3.pdf

CsTreat® and SrTreat®, were tested in laboratory using minicolumns and simulated waste liquid for the treatment of medium-active reprocessing waste effluents. The test results indicated that decontamination factors (DF) in the range of 1000- 10,000 could be obtained for 137Cs and 90Sr, which is well above the required purification efficiency.

 CsTreat® is a hexacyanoferrate material, which is applicable over a wide pH-range (1- 13)5 . SrTreat® is based on titanium oxide and has a weak-acid ion exchange functionality, which means that Sr uptake is low in acidic solution and increases with increasing pH6 . 

The weak-acid nature of SrTreat® exchanger was reflected in the column tests carried out at different pH-values (Fig. 1). The column decontamination factors (DF) for Sr-85 increased with pH. When the influent pH was 8, the column DF’s were initially above 5000 but dropped to about 100 when 400 bed volumes (BV) had been processed. When pH was increased to 10.0 or 11.5, the DF-level increased and remained high (DF > 1,000-10,000) until the termination of the tests at about 1,000 BV. The activity of 134Cs in treated solution was below the detection limit at all pH-values. Calculated from the detection limit, the column DF’s for 134Cs were greater than 6,500 in these cases.  


Selective ion exchangers for Fukushima waste effluent purification

http://indico.cern.ch/event/183405/sessi...ion/55.pdf



Highly Selective Nuclide Removal from the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the SRS

http://sti.srs.gov/fulltext/ms2002577/ms2002577.html

The 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is a concrete structure of blast-resistant design connected to the west side of the reactor building. The R-Reactor Disassembly Basin is the largest of the SRS production reactor basins, encompassing over 40,000 square feet, with a capacity up to ~6.3 million gallons. Reactor operations were initiated in 1953 and the reactor and disassembly basin were retired from service in 1964. The R-Reactor was shutdown in 1964, and is currently maintained in a Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) mode. The disassembly basin still contains the majority of the water left at shutdown, currently about 5,000,000 gallons. 

Both the 3M and Graver/Selion systems were highly effective at removing Cs-137. The Selion CsTreat® is more sensitive to particulate plugging than the 3M SSC cartridge technology. The 3M SSC® filter cartridges can be used at higher flow rates than the Selion CsTreat®, which is limited by the bed volumes/hr it can treat.
"All models are flawed, some are useful."
George E. P. Box
 
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#3
http://enformable.com/2015/08/tepco-gets-approval-to-release-more-fukushima-water-into-the-pacific/

August 25, 2015

TEPCO gets approval to release more Fukushima water into the Pacific


http://enformable.com/2015/07/atomproekt-to-construct-demonstration-tritium-removal-plant-at-fukushima-daiichi/

http://www.fukuleaks.org/web/?p=14874

http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201810090025.html

https://beyondnuclearinternational.org/2...um-danger/
http://www.fukushima-is-still-news.com/2018/08/technology-developed-to-remove-tritium-from-water.html


With all of this in mind, did Atomroekt find radioisotopes in the "decontaminated" Fukushima water and were then unable to remove the tritium for this reason? Not finding news after the agreement...

Found this gem @ pia's Fukuleaks link: http://globenewswire.com/news-release/20...Japan.html


From LWH's wmsym link ; f.f.r: " CsTreat® is a hexacyanoferrate material, which is applicable over a wide pH-range (1- 13)5 . SrTreat® is based on titanium oxide and has a weak-acid ion exchange functionality, which means that Sr uptake is low in acidic solution and increases with increasing pH6 . "
 
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