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metabolomics; life has been altered
#1
Metabolomics is an emerging diagnostic method of measuring the metabolites in body fluids.  Metabolite levels represent the end-point of biochemical processes inside cells.  It is demonstrated that even low level radiation changes complex metabolic functions to a stress state with long term consequences. This is true even when no clinical signs are noted.  The cause and effect of low radiation exposure to disease is likely to be missed.  Indeed, it is usually denied.   But proof of metabolic dysfunction goes a long way toward elucidating a causal link.

There is a post with ethical considerations on this subject of metabolic dysregulation here 
http://caferadlab.com/thread-3659-post-9...ml#pid9108


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"Metabolomics is an emerging new discipline that identifies and quantifies small molecules (50–150?Da) that are downstream of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic processes. Use of this technology is fast gaining credence for the development of molecular signatures of various pathological condition and therapies. Metabolomics-based molecular profiling has been used successfully for assessing qualitative and quantitative response of exposure to ionizing radiation"


 "human keratinocytes when irradiated to a low dose (<10 cGy) exhibited time- and dose-related disruptions in DNA/RNA damage repair and lipid and energy metabolomic pathways. The difference in the levels of the metabolites showed a delayed response to the low-dose IR as the shift in the metabolite levels are different from controls at 48h and not at previous time points. This response imitates the radiobiology of tissues irradiated to high doses, suggesting that biomarkers may be present even at low-dose radiation exposures ."


"gamma radiation may damage DNA differently than other forms of radiation."


"Importantly, rodent models have also been used to explore the possibility that radiations of differing quality [high linear energy transfer (LET) compared to low LET] result in different metabolomics profiles. "

Radiation Metabolomics: Current Status and Future Directions
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4736121/

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The effect of low dose rate on metabolomic response to radiation in mice
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4206600/
there are dozens of different metabolites which are affected by radiation.  There are differences in low and high doses

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article...figure/F5/


"Radiation exposure triggers a complex network of molecular and cellular responses that impacts metabolic processes and alters the levels of metabolites."
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"....(0.00309 Gy/min) distinguishable from those of HDR. From a total of 709 detected spectral features, more than 100 were determined to be statistically significant when comparing urine from mice irradiated with 1.1 or 4.45 Gy to that of sham-irradiated mice 2 days post-exposure. The results of this study show that LDR and HDR exposures perturb many of the same pathways such as TCA cycle and fatty acid metabolism"

The effect of low dose rate on metabolomic response to radiation in mice
https://link.springer.com/article/10.100...014-0558-1


"Little is known regarding the physiological responses to low dose IR at the metabolite level, which represents the end-point of biochemical processes inside cells...
 Biochemical pathway analysis showed perturbations to DNA/RNA damage and repair, lipid and energy metabolisms, even at low doses of IR."

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlel...ivAbstract

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The alterations in intracellular and extracellular metabolites that can accompany cancer-associated metabolic reprogramming have profound effects on gene expression, cellular differentiation, and the tumor microenvironment. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4715268/


Metabolism is tied into complex interactions with cell intrinsic and extrinsic processes that go beyond the conversion of nutrients into energy and biomass. Indeed, metabolism is a central cellular hub that interconnects and influences the microenvironment, the cellular phenotype, cell signaling, and the (epi)genetic landscape. While these interactions evolved to support survival and function of normal cells, they are hijacked by cancer cells to enable cancer maintenance and progression.

It is also important to remember that genes are not a steadfast blueprint for heredity. Genes are actually quite active throughout our lives, switching their expression on and off in response to the environment and experience. Environmental factors can affect and alter gene expression, while our genes can define how we respond to different environments.

 It is not a question of which one affects us more, nature (heredity) or nurture (environment); instead, it is a question of how signals that are not hard-coded interact with our genetics to make us complex individuals. Indeed, it is actually superficial to debate whether nature or nurture is more important. In truth, the relationship between genetic determinants and the environment is so completely entwined that you cannot look at an individual and judge which contribution is more valuable. Together, the continual interplay of both genes and ever-changing environmental factors determines who we are.

https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpag...luence-581
we are healthy with background radiation but unhealthy with the same dose from fallout
 
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#2
Metabolomics - Who makes these words up? It's interesting as another indicator of radiation. Epigenetics modifies the expression of the genome code. Radiation can alter DNA, and maybe more importantly, it's modifying the way our genes get expressed as our bodies interact with our environment. What they thought was junk DNA turned out to have a role in gene expression. Best not to irradiate things outside a lab since we're just learning what radiation is and what it does.
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."
 
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#3
dogs should be able to tell who was exposed to low level fallout.  Except now everything has been exposed to it.   I wonder how it would affect peoples attitudes if they knew dogs could smell if they lived next to a nuclear power plant.
we are healthy with background radiation but unhealthy with the same dose from fallout
 
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#4
Dogs can't smell radiation, but they might be able to smell the different chemistry that radiation produces? Truly, no controls to train them in the nuances.
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."
 
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