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The Ethics of Exposure
#1
It is unethical to be exposed to substances against ones will.   To justify this unethical exposure, official bodies have decided that the advantage outways the risk. They have made the decision that it is legal and justifiable for them to kill and harm a certain percentage of the population because the advantages outway the disadvantage. 

Chris Busby talks about this in some videos.  

Petition to Legally STOP Nuclear: Dr Chris Busby
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTrC4CNq...ex=28&t=0s


A follow up shows that officials deny responsibility and attempt to "pass the buck" even though this is their legal and ethical responsibility, involving the lives of millions.
we are healthy with background radiation but unhealthy with the same dose from fallout
 
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#2
(07-26-2019, 04:02 PM)Code Wrote: It is unethical to be exposed to substances against ones will.   To justify this unethical exposure, official bodies have decided that the advantage outways the risk. They have made the decision that it is legal and justifiable for them to kill and harm a certain percentage of the population because the advantages outway the disadvantage. 

Chris Busby talks about this in some videos.  

Petition to Legally STOP Nuclear: Dr Chris Busby
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTrC4CNq...ex=28&t=0s


A follow up shows that officials deny responsibility and attempt to "pass the buck" even though this is their legal and ethical responsibility, involving the lives of millions.

Hi Code.. I wonder..for every human being that got "hit" by the nuclear industry's exquisite isotopes..and mortally wounded.. how big is the proportional damage to the biomass..?
"Who would have thought that mankind massively converting O2 to CO2 in such a short timeline would cause problems on a planet that depends on CO2 being massively converted to O2 to support mankinds life?"   Pixels of light borrowed from Jebus. 
 
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#3
The other animals, ignored and forgotten victims of nuclear...

Humans make up just 1/10,000 of Earth’s biomass.   No doubt, the number of animals sickened and killed by nuclear exceeds the human population.

Multiplying the human biomass by 10,000 to estimate the carnage of other species wont work though because we dont know the full radiological effect on the different organisms  and the complex interrelationships rippling through the biosphere.  But, it definitely points to the unimaginable  agonizing blow to the other life forms.  There are some 8.7 million species.   The loss of bird and insect populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima suggest that millions upon millions of animals have suffered death and disease around the world from disasters, bomb tests and standard nuclear plant radiation releases.

Catastrophe theory is a mathematical subject that was proposed by Rene Thom.  Catastrophic Collapse Can Occur without Early Warning: Examples of Silent Catastrophes in Structured Ecological Models

https://www.researchgate.net/publication...cal_Models

the planets ecosystem is in a state of dramatic collapse.  Our global civilization of humans will experience an unprecedented state of war and famine....caring little for the plants and animals we rely on for our existence.

 https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-new...6pTkjIi.99

Prof. Mousseau is one of only a handfull of scientists doing field work to assess radiation impacts to wildlife.  

"all of the animals investigated suffered reduced population sizes in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Similarly, birds, butterflies and cicadas experienced population declines in Fukushima"

 "for wild populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima, have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects brought about by exposure to ionizing radiation. "

 "to this date, we do not have a full understanding of the impact and thresholds of ionizing radiation exposure on the fitness of individuals in wild populations. "

https://academic.oup.com/jhered/article/...702/823601


"Much like human survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, birds and mammals at Chernobyl have cataracts in their eyes and smaller brains. These are direct consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation in air, water and food. Like some cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy, many of the birds have malformed sperm. In the most radioactive areas, up to 40 percent of male birds are completely sterile, with no sperm or just a few dead sperm in their reproductive tracts during the breeding season."

"Tumors, presumably cancerous, are obvious on some birds in high-radiation areas. So are developmental abnormalities in some plants and insects."

At Chernobyl And Fukushima, Radioactivity Has Seriously Harmed Wildlife

https://theconversation.com/at-chernobyl...life-57030
we are healthy with background radiation but unhealthy with the same dose from fallout
 
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#4
In an excellent scientific achievement, it was found that Chernobyl is a kind of death trap resulting in excess deaths of 1.8 million birds per year

Elevated Mortality among Birds in Chernobyl as Judged from Skewed Age and Sex Ratios
Anders Pape Møller , Andrea Bonisoli-Alquati, Geir Rudolfsen, Timothy A. Mousseau
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/articl...ne.0035223


What happens to birds;

Change in colouration, particularly with patches of albinism, not seen anywhere else
Genetic damage in many species
Elevated rates of cataracts and tumours
A five per cent smaller brain, linked to poorer survival
Lower sperm counts
Reduced population sizes


https://www.cbc.ca/radio/quirks/april-27...-1.5111321

Collection of articles on animal impacts
https://nuclear-news.net/tag/mutations/
we are healthy with background radiation but unhealthy with the same dose from fallout
 
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#5
 Low level radiation changes a large number of metabolites.
This effectively changes who you are

" it is actually superficial to debate whether nature or nurture is more important. In truth, the relationship between genetic determinants and the environment is so completely entwined that you cannot look at an individual and judge which contribution is more valuable. Together, the continual interplay of both genes and ever-changing environmental factors determines who we are."
Ingrid Lobo, Ph.D  Kenna Shaw, Ph.D


Low level radiation can affect your genetics directly, but more profoundly, it affects your metabolism and how your genes are expressed. This  shaping of your being by genetics vs environment is sometimes framed as 'nature vs nurture' and 'epigenetics'.   The fact that the nuclear industries have altered the metabolism of all exposed animals has large ethical implications.

This should end the hormesis argument as well...


Mainstream science and legal policy posit that low level radiation does not cause disease to an entire population, but only randomly and very rarely will it increase the chance of someone getting cancer.  To underscore the point that no damage of consequence is done, they usually compare low level man made radiation doses to background radiation.   

But in fact, low level radiation is changing....has changed the biology of life on the planet.  Even when no disease is discerned, our  observable constitution, even our appearance and physical/mental function has been altered in ways not normally noticed.   The name given to our expressed state of being is 'phenotype'

The phenotype is the appearance of an organism resulting from the interaction of the genotype and the environment. The nuclear industry has  altered the people and animals without consent.   This has dramatic ethical, philosophical and legal implications.

The metabolism forms the phenotype...function and form, or who you are beyond just your genetics.  And the metabolic influence of radiation has been measured.   The urine and plasma carry metabolites which reflect your metabolic function.  Low level radiation changes at least a few dozen metabolites.  This is true even when no disease or clinical symptoms manifest.  These changes in our metabolism can have long term consequences.

This invalidates the claim that low level radiation is stochastic; the theory of a  random, binary effect/no effect.  On the contrary, all  animals exposed to unnatural radiation (unnatural levels, chemical type, form, distribution, electromagnetic frequency, specific activity etc)  are altered to an unnatural state of biology.  In the short term, this can boost DNA repair, but is generally a negative influence, exhausting resources and promoting disease states, including cancer in the long term.    Indeed, this is the basis of the hormesis/bystander  effect continuum. 

And how might this change your 'being'?   Well besides urine with a different profile of metabolites...important signalling for many animals of course, like dogs and wild animals that use scent markers which modify interpersonal behaviors...a different metabolism will be expressed over time in physical appearance.   The skin will reflect ones constitution, the change in the fight/flight endocrine system will alter the lines on your face, position of eyebrows and look in the eyes.  This is essentially premature aging, with loss of vitality which would eventually affect posture and other features which of course are cues involved in social relationships.  

'dysregulated fatty acid synthesis, immune dysfunction and pro-inflammatory signaling  incompetent immune system
elevated oxidative stress, increased senescent cells, and induction of a pro-inflammatory state characteristic of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype'
===========

Overall, 135 proteins showed statistical significant difference between the sham (0 cGy) and any of the irradiated groups (3, 10 or 200 cGy) on the basis of Dunnett adjusted t-test; among these, 97 proteins showed a trend of downregulation and 9 proteins showed a trend of upregulation with increasing radiation dose. In addition, there were 21 and 8 proteins observed to have irregular trends with the 10 cGy irradiated group either having the highest or the lowest level among all three radiated doses. Moreover, two proteins, carboxypeptidase E and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 were sensitive to ionizing radiation, but relatively independent of radiation dose. Conversely, proteasome activator complex subunit 2 protein appeared to be sensitive to the dose of radiation, as rapid upregulation of this protein was observed when radiation doses were increased from 3, to 10 or 200 cGy. These results suggest that different mechanisms of action exist at the secretome level for low and high doses of ionizing radiation.

The seven 14-3-3 proteins  observed in this work all showed downregulation for all of the irradiated samples, in particular for the 200 cGy dose when compared with the sham irradiation, which showed that ionizing radiation suppress expression of many proteins within the 14-3-3 family, this may lead to perturbed homeostasis in tumor suppression and other important biological functions.

High and Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Induce Different Secretome Profiles in a Human Skin Model
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/articl...ne.0092332

=======

"Results: A sex-interaction effect was observed in the kidney, urine, and plasma metabolomes of contaminated rats. Moreover, urine and kidney metabolic profiles correlated and confirmed that the primary dysregulated metabolisms are those of nicotinate-nicotinamide and of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Upstream of the metabolic pathways, transcriptomic profiles of the kidney reveal gene activity focused on gene regulation mechanisms, cell signaling, cell structure, developmental processes, and cell proliferation. Examination of epigenetic post-transcriptional gene regulation processes showed significant dysregulation of 70 micro-RNAs. The multi-omics approach highlighted the activities of the cells' biological processes on multiple scales through analysis of gene expression, confirmed by changes observed in the metabolome."

"Conclusion: Our results showed changes in multi-omic profiles of rats exposed to low doses of uranium contamination, compared with controls. These changes involved gene expression as well as modifications in the transcriptome and the metabolome. The metabolomic profile confirmed that the main molecular targets of uranium in kidney cells are the metabolism of nicotinate-nicotinamide and the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. Additionally, gene expression analysis showed that the metabolism of fatty acids is targeted by processes associated with cell function. These results demonstrate that multiscale systems biology is useful in elucidating the most discriminative pathways from genomic to metabolomic levels for assessing the biological impact of this low-level environmental exposure, i.e. the exposome."

===========

"Organisms undergo stress during either acute or chronic low-dose environmental exposure, e.g. when living in a polluted area. Environmental exposures are suspected to induce delayed adverse effects that might cause increased susceptibility to some cancers and to metabolic diseases through direct metabolic dysregulation or affecting gene transcription by epigenetic regulation processes that can even impact the offspring."

"dysregulated pathways include those for the metabolism of linoleic acid, vitamin B6, riboflavin, sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, glycine, serine, threonine, other fatty acid metabolisms, tryptophan, arginine, and proline, for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and steroids and finally for the elongation of fatty acids in mitochondria. Among these pathways, several have already been described as biomarkers of oxidative stress after exposure to copper and long-term exposure to heavy metals 

Moreover, fatty acids have been described as one of the most important biomarkers of chemical stressors such as heavy metals  Fatty acid profiling as bioindicator of chemical stress in marine organisms:  they are associated with oxidative stress  and closely linked to the inflammatory immune response

These pathways indicate the broad effect of uranium through inter-network relations between metabolic pathways and possible physiological consequences. Urine appears to be a more interesting biofluid than plasma for studies of the effects of low-dose uranium exposures. Both urine and the kidneys share affected pathways, with still other pathways differentially affected depending on the individual's sex. The involvement of different sex-dependent pathways might explain the differences in sensitivity in terms of health risk assessment.


In our study, Elastic Net selected 70 miRNAs differentially expressed in contaminated kidneys after NU exposure. These miRNAs can be putatively linked to major metabolic pathways, including those for sphingolipids, nicotinate-nicotinamide, fatty acids biosynthesis, and cell processes, which were identified by our metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses. These multiscale results confirm the relevance of this method for understanding the biological response to low-dose uranium exposure and the dysregulation that occurred at several scales.


 Depending on the confounding environmental factors, Nonetheless, our results confirm a multiscale biological effect by chronic low-dose uranium exposure at the epigenetic and genetic levels, as well as at the metabolomic level, which represents the final read-out of cellular regulation processes.

Applying a multiscale systems biology approach to study the effect of chronic low-dose exposure to uranium in rat kidneys
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10....19.1577567




 molecularly and cytologicaly, same effects of low dose radiation exposures can be beneficial in specific disease
contexts (e.g. regenerative neovascularization as found by Ministro et al., 2017) and detrimental
in others (e.g. neovascularization supporting tumor growth in SCID mice


http://dels.nas.edu/resources/static-ass...be2019.pdf



 Cellular responses to radiation injury and other forms of genotoxic stress
involve a complex network of signaling processes that contribute to recovery from injury but can
also have adverse effects in vivo. Interestingly, many of these responses have been shown to
be induced even by low dose radiation (LDR) 1, and similar effects were subsequently shown by
others. In the case of transcriptional responses, p53 signaling can be induced by doses of 1
cGy or lower. Using genetic and metabolomics approaches, our laboratory has shown that
LDR can affect many tissues in vivo and can impact immune function and energy metabolism
by inhibiting specific signaling pathways. Long-term effects of radiation are known to be
associated with immune dysfunction and pro-inflammatory signaling in many tissues, and can
lead to incompetent metabolic reprogramming in activated T cells even at low doses 2. After
either low or high LET LDR, our laboratory has shown triggering of long-term stress signaling,
elevated oxidative stress, increased senescent cells, and induction of a pro-inflammatory state characteristic of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Radiation-induced
premature senescence is well known in the field, and it has been shown that even a very small
number of senescent cells can result in physical dysfunction. For example, senescent cells can
impact normal somatic stem cell function with a variety of deleterious long-term consequences 


The mechanisms by which radiation and other environmental factors cause disease conditions
include cancer include genome and epigenome modifications and direct chemical and physical
interactions that compromise the multiscale structures and functions of affected cells and
tissues. Importantly, the actual effects of exposure to these factors depend on the biological,
physical and chemical environments in which the individual affected cells reside. ~Joe Gray, OHSU


The consequences of exposures to low doses of mutagens on single human cells and how
those changes alter tissue health are largely unknown.  Charles Gawad, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital


The overall lethality/morbidity of ionizing radiation exposure involves multiple forms of inhibitory or cytotoxic effects that may manifest in different tissues with a varying dose and time response
we are healthy with background radiation but unhealthy with the same dose from fallout
 
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#6
(07-26-2019, 05:17 PM)"The other animals, ignored and forgotten victims of nuclear... Wrote: Humans make up just 1/10,000 of Earth’s biomass.   No doubt, the number of animals sickened and killed by nuclear exceeds the human population.

Multiplying the human biomass by 10,000 to estimate the carnage of other species wont work though because we dont know the full radiological effect on the different organisms  and the complex interrelationships rippling through the biosphere.  But, it definitely points to the unimaginable  agonizing blow to the other life forms.  There are some 8.7 million species.   The loss of bird and insect populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima suggest that millions upon millions of animals have suffered death and disease around the world from disasters, bomb tests and standard nuclear plant radiation releases."

Thank you for answering Code..helps me to visualise, with variables, the potential damage done to the whole (bio-mass + planet) and its interconnected symbiotic functioning..like regulating the Climate for example..everytime I grief for the suffer and eventually loss caused by those exquisite man-made isotopes.. of one of my own species.
"Who would have thought that mankind massively converting O2 to CO2 in such a short timeline would cause problems on a planet that depends on CO2 being massively converted to O2 to support mankinds life?"   Pixels of light borrowed from Jebus. 
 
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