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Krypton-85 and climate change
#1
Quote:Krypton-85 (85Kr) is a radioisotope of krypton.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krypton-85

It has a half-life of 10.756 years and a maximum decay energy of 687 keV.[1] It decays into stable, non-radioactive rubidium-85. Its most common decay (99.57%) is by beta particle emission with maximum energy of 687 keV and an average energy of 251 keV. The second most common decay (0.43%) is by beta particle emission (maximum energy of 173 keV) followed by gamma ray emission (energy of 514 keV).[2] Other decay modes have very small probabilities and emit less energetic gammas.[1][3] It's one of the 33 known isotopes of krypton.

In terms of radiotoxicity, 440 Bq of Kr-85 is equivalent to 1 Bq of radon-222, without considering the rest of the radon decay chain.

The sun, solar activity, is the largest driver of climate change here on Earth.  Variations in Earth's orbit determines its distance from the solar system's main energy source.  Earth's tilt determines the seasons as more sunlight reaches one hemisphere or the other.  How much of the sun's energy reaches the surface plays a direct role in variations of Earth's climate.  The Earth's atmosphere filters and protects us from the sun's radiation, less commonly called electrical energy.  Man's activities have been introducing large amounts of radioactive elements into Earth's atmosphere.  The EPA isn't restricting krypton-85 releases by the nuke industry.  Krypton-85 is being released faster than it decays and many are concerned the accumulation is having far reaching consequences.  

Quote:The effect of a nuclear energy expansion strategy in Europe on health damages from air pollution
J.C. Bollen and H.C. Eerens
Netherlands Enivornmental Assessment Agency - MNP Report 500116003/2007
https://www.pbl.nl/sites/default/files/c...116003.pdf

excerpts from pages 23,24

Textbox 1: Krypton-85 accumulation in the atmosphere
Krypton-85 is a long-lived radioactive isotope which is naturally released into the atmosphere in small quantities (Harrison and Apsimon, 1994), approximately 5.2 1013 Bq/yr and, in larger quantities artificially (1017-1018 Bq/yr). It has steadily accumulated in the atmosphere since 1945 (from <0.2 Bg/m3), when anthropogenic nuclear activities started, and reaches 1.3 Bq/m3 nowadays.
Ion production
The principal concern with krypton-85 release is not a radiological/medical one, as population doses are small (Boeck, 1976), but the possible disturbance of the global electrical system (Legasov et al, 1984, Tertyshnik et al., 1977). It is known from nuclear weapon testing (Huzita, 1966) that atmospheric radioactivity increases air’s natural conductivity. The conductivity of air is proportional to the (small) ion concentration. These ions are formed naturally in atmospheric air at a rate (near the surface) of about 10 ion-pairs cm-3 s-1 (Chalmers, 1967). There are three major sources of these ions: airborne alpha radiation, cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma radiation. Near the Earth’s surface, gamma radiation from the soil is the chief source of ionization, due to the nuclear decay in the Earth’s crust. This accounts for about 80% of the
ionization near the surface. The remaining ionization is caused by cosmic rays, whose intensity increases greatly with height. Ionization over the oceans is considerably lower, since there is no gamma contribution and a greatly reduced amount of airborne alpha radiation.
Removal
The removal of ions can take place through two mechanisms: ion-ion recombination and ion-aerosol attachment. In the last case the particles become electrically charged (Fuchs, 1963). In the steady state, the bipolar ion production rate q per unit volume and the ion loss rates are balanced, given by (Harrison and Apsimon, 1994):  q-αn2-βnZ=0 (1)
Where α is defined as the ion-ion recombination coefficient (1.6,10-6 cm3.s-1, e.g. Gringel et al, 1978) and β is the attachment coefficient between an ion and aerosol particle. β depends on the aerosol particle radius and charge (Gunn, 1954). Z is aerosol particle number concentration per unit volume, and n is the average ion number concentration. At higher aerosol concentration (i.e. 10 μg/m3 with 0.2 μm radius particles) n is dominated by aerosol-ion attachments. From
the formula it becomes clear that a change in conductivity can occur due to an increase in the production rate q (by, for example the additional ionization caused by krypton-85) or a change in aerosol concentration (increase will decrease conductivity).
Change in conductivity by krypton-85
The amount of extra ionization caused by the beta radiation can be found by using the average beta energy (0.249 MeV) for krypton-85. For a krypton-85 concentration of Ckr Bq/m3 the ionization rate is: qkr=(2.49.105/35).Ckr. (2)
Assuming a surface ionization rate qo of 10 ion-pairs cm-3.s-1 the change in ion production is:
dq/q0 = 7.11.10-4 Ckr. (3)
Over the oceans, where q0 is about one-fifth of its continental value, the fractional change will be corresponding larger. The concentration of krypton falls with density (height) of air:
Ckr(z)= c(0)e-z/8561, where c(0) is the surface concentration. (4)
Combining ion production from the crust and cosmic ray, a maximum share of krypton-85 ion production can be expected at a height of 500-1500m, about twice the value at the surface and at a surface concentration of 1.3 Bq/m3 , a change of 2‰ in ion concentration at 1000 m can be expected . Locally, near a nuclear waste processing plant, the share can increase to approximately 20% (Clarke, 1979). Note that the conductivity above mountainous (remote) areas (Antarctic, Himalaya, determines the Earths resistance and interaction with the ionsphere.
Consequence for the atmospheric system
• It is generally assumed, although surrounded with some uncertainty and controversial (Illingworth and Latham, 1975), that thunderstorms provide the earth with a small negative charge. The slight conductivity of the atmosphere (see above) creates a small, opposite “fair weather current” (E= + 100 V.m-1, J ~2 pA.m-2 at the surface). Considering the earth as a spherical capacitor (with Ct ~2.8 Farads) it would lose it’s charge (τ ~667 s) in about an hour. The earth needs therefore continuously be charged by approximately 2000 thunderstorms
(Schonland, 1953). A change of 0.1% could therefore be compared with the equivalent of two continually active thunderstorms. The interaction between an increasing conductivity and thunderstorms remains unclear although there are suggestions (Spangler and Rosenkilde, 1979) that it would weaken thunderstorm lighting.
• Recently there have been some suggestions that charged ions can, even at small concentrations, can have a (substantial?) effect on the formation of certain type’s of clouds (Marsh and Svensmark; 2000, Harrison, 2000; Carslaw et al., 2002) . If confirmed this would imply that a changing concentration of krypton-85 could affect to some extent the earth’s climate.3

Quote:Did 1958 US Thermonuclear Test Create the Hole in the Ozone Layer?
Oct 5, 2013
https://www.groundreport.com/did-1958-us...one-layer/

Based on recently declassified information, it is becoming clear that even at the time of the test, scientists were concerned that the ultraviolet flash set off by these massive explosions would burn a hole in the ozone layer.


Quote:Krypton-85 pollution and atmospheric electricity
R.G. Harrison, H.M. ApSimon
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...1094900418

Abstract

Krypton-85 is a chemically inert radioactive gas present in the atmosphere, concentrations of which have been greatly increased by nuclear reprocessing and weapons testing since 1945. The long half-life (10.7 yr), allows the gas to mix thoroughly in the atmosphere. Ionization caused by krypton-85 increases the electrical conductivity of atmospheric air. Further increases in krypton-85 emissions seem inevitable. The increase in air conductivity due to release of krypton-85 will vary with height, and be larger over the oceans than over the land. Increases in conductivity will produce uncertain effects on atmospheric phenomena, so changes are compared in magnitude with other factors perturbing the conductivity, such as combustion aerosol burdens, volcanic eruptions and nuclear weapons testing. Conductivity changes are expected to have the greatest significance for meteorological phenomena close to the source.

Quote:The radioactivity of atmospheric krypton in 1949–1950
Anthony Turkevich*, Lester Winsberg†, Howard Flotow‡, and Richard M. Adams§
Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439
Contributed by Anthony Turkevich, April 10, 1997
https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/94/15/7807.full.pdf

ABSTRACT

The chemical element krypton, whose principal
source is the atmosphere, had a long-lived radioactive
content, in the mid-1940s, of less than 5 dpm per liter of
krypton. In the late 1940s, this content had risen to values in
the range of 100 dpm per liter. It is now some hundred times
higher than the late 1940 values. This radioactivity is the
result of the dissolving of nuclear fuel for military and civilian
purposes, and the release thereby of the fission product
krypton-85 (half-life 5 10.71 years, fission yield 5 0.2%). The
present largest emitter of krypton-85 is the French reprocessing
plant at Cap-de-la-Hague.

Quote:Krypton-85: How nuclear power plants cause climate change
Geplaatst op 1 juli 2015
The Seneca Effect - Decline is faster than growth.
https://thesenecaeffect.wordpress.com/20...ate-change

Excerpt

If 85Kr continues to increase, changes in such atmospheric processes and properties as atmospheric electric conductivity, ion current, the Earth’s magnetic field, formation of cloud condensation nuclei and aerosols, and frequency of lightning may result and thus disturb the Earth’s heat balance and precipitation patterns. These 85Kr-induced consequences call for 85Kr monitoring.6

Quote:Update and improvement of the global krypton-85 emission inventory
Jochen Ahlswede,Simon Hebel,J. Ole Ross,Robert Schoetter,Martin B. Kalinowski
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity - January 2013
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...1X12001816

Abstract

“Krypton-85 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors by fission of uranium and plutonium and released during chopping and dissolution of spent fuel rods in nuclear reprocessing facilities. As noble gas it is suited as a passive tracer for evaluation of atmospheric transport models. Furthermore, research is ongoing to assess its quality as an indicator for clandestine reprocessing activities. This paper continues previous efforts to compile a comprehensive historic emission inventory for krypton-85.
Reprocessing facilities are the by far largest emitters of krypton-85. Information on sources and calculations used to derive the annual krypton-85 emission is provided for all known reprocessing facilities in the world. In addition, the emission characteristics of two plants, Tokai (Japan) and La Hague (France), are analysed in detail using emission data with high temporal resolution. Other types of krypton-85 sources are power reactors, naval reactors and isotope production facilities. These sources contribute only little or negligible amounts of krypton-85 compared to the large reprocessing facilities. Taking the decay of krypton-85 into account, the global atmospheric inventory is estimated to about 5500 PBq at the end of 2009. The correctness if the inventory has been proven by meteorological simulations and its error is assumed to be in the range of a few percent.

The Electric Hurricanes of 2005
Apr 20, 2006
http://thunderbolts.info/tpod/2006/arch0...icanes.htm

Why Hurricanes Irma & Harvey are So Powerful, What They Aren't Telling You (451)
Adapt 2030
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOpfV3JGZN4

Smaller Solar Events Now Dangerous To Earth!
Peter Daley ( 14th May 2016 )
https://technologypals.com.au/smaller-so...s-to-earth

Quote:vital1
September 14, 2017 at 9:30 pm • Reply
I observed in 2011, that small solar storm events where producing Northern Light displays, way down into Southern states in the USA. I have been a sun watcher for many years, and know it was very unusual for such small solar events to produce such Northern Light displays, so far south.
Our atmosphere is an electrical system, and these unusual Northern lights displays indicated that the electrical dynamics of the upper atmosphere had been changed by the large radioactive releases from the Fukushima Nuclear Catastrophe.
http://sccc.org.au/extreme-uv-levels-in-summer

Vital1 contributes more information connecting Fukushima Daiichi radioactive releases to the 2011 damage to the arctic ozone hole and related weather anomalies, including possible health effects from a damaged atmosphere.
 
Quote:Planetary Thermal Imbalance & Extreme UV Levels in Summer!

Radiation contamination of the environment, on the scale of the Fukushima Nuclear Catastrophe, has much broader effects than just detectable increases of radiation in air and water spreading out from Japan. It affects the dynamics of the entire biosphere!

Excellent resource and reference, read Peter Daley's work at the Sunshine Coast Computer Club.
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."
 
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