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Radiation and the Living World
#1
Toward an Understanding of Radiation and its impact on the living world

The early attempts to understand and codify the effect of nuclear radiation on biological systems stemmed from a mechanical, energetic paradigm.  The body was seen like an inanimate machine, the radiation a burst of energy that could do X amount of damage to Y amount of tissue.  It is an understandable approach.  But in the last 20 years that paradigm was found invalid.  The biological response, secondary effects, ecosystem effects; these are now considered of primary importance in radiobiology.   

The complexity of biology and high frequency electromagnetism and particle physics assures that much is not known and discoveries and new paradigms will arise for some time into the future.

"An international radioecology conference was held for the first time in 2007 in Bergen, Norway.  European scientists from various countries had pushed for joint efforts to combat radioactivity in the environment for three decades, but governments were hesitant to attempt this feat because of the secrecy involved in nuclear research, as technological and military developments remained competitive."  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioecology

Competitive eh?  Competing our way to ecological collapse.

An example of the newer paradigm is that the biological web of life, across the span of a cell, organ, body, species and ecological system is an interconnected, communicating and interdependent whole.  The bystander effect, where cells and even entire animals not exposed to radiation are effected nevertheless, has been called the dominant effect of low level radiation. When the Admiral sends a written command to fire bombs on the target, the message is as important as the energy of the bombs. The bystander effect is one finding which overturns the old way of determining radiation risk; especially the ICRP dosimetry of 'health physics'.   

But everything we read or hear from the mainstream news releases is based on this outdated and monumentally flawed system.   So the challenge is to make the public, and any lagging scientists aware that the risk estimates were wrong, and science has moved forward.

------------------------

The importance of bystander effects in radiation therapy in melanoma skin-cancer cells and umbilical-cord stromal stem cells
https://www.researchgate.net/publication...stem_cells

 the cascade of events, including intra- and inter-cellular signal-ing involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species, cytokines orepigenetic changes, has still to be clarified and the results can vary
considerably according to the type of radiation and the genotype,DNA repair capacity and physiological state of the cells and tissuesinvolved. Since the bystander effect was first described, the biological meaning and extension of this effect remains open to debate. A great deal of evidence suggests that the application of ion-izing radiation to a target volume that includes the tumor elicits ef-fects that exceed radiation-induced cell death and also produces diffusible oxygen reactive species and secreted factors that havebeen identified as possible mediators in the indirect bystander ef-fect , and it can be clearly seen that the damage induced by thebystander effect is not necessarily the same as that responsible for the traditional effects of radiation. The recipient cells trans-duce the signals produced by irradiated cells and appear to coordi-nate a response. Such responses recorded to date include theinitiation of apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation These coordinated responses can be protective in that an apoptoticresponse, for example, can remove an abnormal cell from the pop-ulation, but the response can also involve pre-malignant condi-tions such as the fixing of mutations, the induction of genomic instability or cell transformation. This knowledge supports a possible change in the way we interpret a patient’s response to radiotherapy   as well as implications for the standard para-digm for radiation risk in cancer sufferers and inheritable effects

The Evolution of Radiobiological Thought

I havent found the full paper yet, looks interesting.  Ideas that were fringe 40 years ago are making inroads to mainstream science. Biophoton signalling is one.  

'The Evolution of Radiobiological Thought: Past History and Future Predictions'

Carmel Mothersill

" In the future we predict that population based effects will dominate at all hierarchical levels and that the micro- and macro environmental influences will dominate our approach to medical and environmental protection issues."
we are healthy with background radiation but unhealthy with the same dose from fallout
 
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#2
The ionization effect of ionizing radiation is always assumed to be the cause of its effects, while the possible frequency effects are never considered.   It seems quite possible that subharmonics of different frequencies of ionizing radiation could interact with cellular biology.

"Bioelectrodynamics is a branch of medical physics and bioelectromagnetism which deals with rapidly changing electric and magnetic fields in biological systems, i.e. high frequency endogenous electromagnetic phenomena in living cells. Unlike the events studied by the electrophysiology, the generating mechanism of bioelectrodynamic phenomenon is not connected with currents of ions and its frequency is typically much higher. Examples include vibrations of electrically polar intracellular structures and non-thermal emission of photons as a result of metabolic activity."

"Bioelectrodynamic effects were experimentally proven in optical range of electromagnetic spectrum. Spontaneous emission of photons by living cells, with intensity significantly higher than corresponds to emission by thermal radiation, was repeatedly reported by several authors over decades. These observations exhibit experimental simplicity and good reproducibility. Although non-thermal emission of photons from living cells is generally accepted phenomenon, much less is known about its origin and properties. On the one hand, it is sometimes attributed to chemiluminescent metabolic reactions (including for instance reactive oxygen species (ROS), on the other hand, some authors relate this phenomenon to far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioelectrodynamics

And going deeper

"...many unique features of life escape molecular biology. The cell molecules perform a collective dynamics, based on the interaction of many degrees of freedom; otherwise, fluctuations would prevail progressively and destroy the cell before it can multiply and perpetuate itself. There is a general agreement that life is a metastable state. Moreover cells are a special kind of heterogeneous soft matter, displaying basically different types of order, local and global, disposed in a hierarchy on successive scales from nanometer-sized elements to the size of the cell itself and beyond, and involving short- and long-range correlations altogether. At the same time living organisms are open and dissipative structures, optimal, self-regulating, homeostatic systems which work by non-linear and cooperative interactions, and their dynamics is highly integrated.

Fröhlich’s model of long-range coherence in living systems A most plausible answer to problems such as the origin of unicellular organisms and man and accounting for the key features of life has been given by Herbert Fröhlich’s in his kinetic rate model of long-range coherence in living systems (Fröhlich 1968a,b, 1975, 1978, 1980, 1982). This theory is consistent to the dissipative structure theory but essentially open to a microscopic approach. Fröhlich postulated that non-linear interaction between longitudinal elastic modes / acoustic (phonon) vibrations and electric polarization fields when pumped by metabolic (chemical) energy above a critical threshold results in excitation of coherent electric polar oscillations; non-linearity is involved also in the coupling of the system to a heath bath, which adds thermal noise due to physiologic temperature. The resulting single coherently excited polar mode is a special dynamical order based on correlations in momentum space which describes the living vs. non-living basic difference; consequently, the living system reaches a metastable minimum of energy. The single collective dynamic mode of electric dipoles is excited in the 10^11 -10^12 Hz band and generates intense electric fields allowing longrange Coulomb interactions. Moreover, it “has considerable similarity with the low-temperature condensation of a Bose gas” (Fröhlich 1968b); the system reaches a state that can be termed a Bose–Einstein-like condensation, not in a phase in equilibrium, but in a nonequilibrium dissipative structure (Del Giudice et al 1982). The Fröhlich kinetic rate equation has been later derived on a microscopic basis, for a system of oscillating electric dipoles described by a Hamiltonian written with cell, heat-bath, and energy-pump creation and annihilation boson-type operators; this treatment indicated also that Bose-type condensation may occur in biosystems in a frequency domain under certain conditions"

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ba32/0a...896787.pdf

What can we possibly get from that?   The cell and larger structures, up to the whole body, is not simply the sum of little parts, but an integrated whole.  The holistic principle.  Frequency effects are part of this system.  In some ways, living systems resemble the state of gas at near zero temperatures, the Bose Einstein condensate.  This view puts living systems in a radically different light than inanimate objects.  Conventional scientific approaches, what to say of intuition, may not suffice for comprehending the entirety of biology and its response to electromagnetic frequencies, perhaps including ionizing radiation. 

"In addition to providing a key for the 4 Collective models of water in living cells and bulk liquid characteristic type of order in living cells, the Fröhlich model succeeded in understanding some overall biological phenomena, such as self-preservation by metabolism, cell-cell signaling, contact inhibition, cancer proliferation, brain waves, long-range interactions between cells and biopolymers, and enzymatic reactions (Tuszynski 2004). Various experimental data sustain the theory, including for instance non-thermal effects in E.coli found by Raman scattering (Webb et al 1977, Webb 1980) – thoroughly analyzed by the Milano group (e.g., Del Giudice et al 1982) and reviewed by Pokorny et al (1991) –, increased growth of yeast cells by millimiter waves irradiation at specific frequencies (Grundler and Keilman 1983, 1989"

"She Blinded me...with SCIENCE!"  -Thomas Dolby
we are healthy with background radiation but unhealthy with the same dose from fallout
 
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#3
[Image: fnbeh-10-00077-g0001.jpg]

A moth; magnificent, isn't it?

The moth above is a long distance migrator, the Bogong moth.  Below is another insect that migrates long distance, the Green darner dragonfly.   These little guys travel up to 1000 kilometers, precisely navigating to their destination. Monarch butterflies can travel 4000 km.  They are over 80% gone.  

 For some reason (megalomania) , we think nothing of extraordinary animal migration, yet, unaided, we would not be able to duplicate the feat of an insect.  The living world is more amazing than we can imagine.  These little animals think, they can count, they decide to use air currents to their advantage, they have multiple compass navigation systems, they communicate with each other over long distances by body movement modulated pheromone mediated electromagnetic 'radio' systems. You would be lucky to catch one without a net. They have survived for a very, very long time, and it goes without saying their energy resource and that of the living world for millions of years never included mankinds addiction to oil, coal and nuclear energy.  

insect long distance pheromone/radio communications  https://books.google.com/books?id=yajNBQ...cs&f=false

insects use infrared radio to communicate http://www.uaefirst.com/electr-com-and-o...nsects.pdf

 Insect populations are in steep decline.  50%, 75%, in some cases 90% gone.  Scientists pose theories why this incredible loss of insects is occurring, usually invoking climate change as a catch-all theory, along with fairly obvious guesses like insecticide use.   One thing is notably absent; scientists never ask if mankind's nuclear radiation has anything to do with it.  

Make no mistake; when the insects die, mankind will die also, if thats your primary concern.  There is no doubt about that. 

The majority of the outside of this dragonfly is made from chitin, including much of their amazing eyes.  My interest in chitin came from a question I had about radiation measurement;  how do they collect the very small amount of cesium in the ocean from nuclear accidents, in order to measure it.  I found that they use ion exchange resins.  I searched for biological ion exchange resins and found that chitin, a universal biological building material, is very good at absorbing nuclear fallout.  It is one reason why chitinous organisms have a high bio-accumulation of radiation.   

The amount of fallout may be very small, but we can get a sense for the delicate and sensitive mechanisms incorporated into life forms like these long distance flyers, and then imagine how specs of nuclear fallout could interfere with their life functions.  Butterflies, moths and dragonflies have multiple navigation systems, and one of these is an accurate time and temperature adjusted compass that uses the sun, the moon and stars, the light from the milky way...the angle that these lights shine on their compound eyes, adjusted by clocks within their antennae.  Other compasses use longitudinal and inclination magnetic field information.  

Their bodies are incredible engineering master works,  as can be seen especially in the wings.  Butterfly wings are endowed with a diversity of excellent and remarkable properties. They have ever finer details of architectural chitin structures that act as photon waveguides, solar collectors, water repellent and self cleaning surfaces, have color effects in the visible, ultraviolet and infrared ranges,  directional adhesion for fluidic control, optical response to temperature, highly selective vapour response, olfactory sensors,  conduits for hydration and inertial stabilization, waxy paramagnetic wave guides for long distance communications.

Mankind won't be making micro aviation machines with this exquisite sophistication any time soon and probably not ever.  We are losing the living world at a fast pace.  Scientists should ask what effect nuclear fallout has on insect decline.  A single nano particle of nuclear fallout may be enough to alter the spacial and temporal development of crucial microscopic chitin structures.

A close up photo reveals dented eyes from Fukushima radiation which would affect the vision and navigation of a butterfly.  Far smaller structures collect pheromone modulated electromagnetic information crucial for mating. Not even visible would be metabolic and immune dysfunction.

[Image: fukushima.jpg]

Below, the long distance migratory Green darner dragonfly

[Image: 122018_SM_dragonfly_feat.jpg]

we can see gross deformities from nuclear fallout.  Below, the pale grass blue butterfly is massively deformed from Fukushima fallout.  As little as 1/5 becquerel was found to be deforming by visual inspection.  But what of less visible, more subtle effects which could affect navigation and mating?  Check out the amazing intricacy of chitin butterfly wing structure, a multi purpose aerodynamic, photon active, water repellent self cleaning, structural masterpiece

https://spatialexperiments.wordpress.com...9/19/7613/

[Image: butterfly-jpg-data.jpg]
we are healthy with background radiation but unhealthy with the same dose from fallout
 
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#4
here is a spider showing radioactive silver from the Fukushima meltdowns.   There is considerable bioaccumulation and non uniform distribution.  This is an autoradiograph, meaning only the radiation from the fallout in the insect was used to expose the photographic film. When scientists assure us the fallout is safe, they lose credibility when you can expose film with radioactive bugs.

[Image: images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTk8eqipuFV2tv8v7-QWbS...25uJzgvHGy]

The soil in a large radius around Fukushima has hundreds of radioactive particles per gram.  The form of the particles, an amalgamation of silicon from vaporized cement along with other nuclear fuel materials, may make it less prone to ion exchange absorption.  But as the particles decompose over time, various fission products will be exposed and find routes into the ecosystem.  

"radioactive silver (110mAg), was detected in concentrations of 3754 Bq/kg in Nephila clavata (the orb-web spider; Joro-gumo in Japanese) collected at Nimaibashi, Iitate village in Fukushima Prefecture, whereas 110mAg in the soil was 43.1 Bq/kg. A survey of 35 faunal species in the terrestrial environment during the 3.5 years after the accident showed that most of Anthropoda had two orders higher 110mAg in their tissues than soils, although silver is not an essential element for their life. However, tracing of the activity of 110mAg detected in spider Atypus karschi collected regularly at a fixed location showed that it declined much faster than the physical half-life. These results suggest that 110mAg was at once biologically concentrated by faunal species, especially Arthropoda, through food chain."

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/dow...1&type=pdf
we are healthy with background radiation but unhealthy with the same dose from fallout
 
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#5
How much information can insect radio carry?

"We show that the emission of the long-distance sex pheromone of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides is highly condition-dependent and reliably reflects nutritional state, age, body size and parasite load"
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528514/

Before you go on a blind date, wouldnt it be nice to know their body size and parasite load?

Butterflies can see ultraviolet colors and you cant.  Sorry.  They have nine photo-receptors where we have only three color receptive cones. 
Ultraviolet communication in butterflies
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultraviole...utterflies

All the scientists assure us that climate change is one of the big causes of insect decline.  They never consider nuclear fallout.  When scientists are not scientific;  They try to pin everything on climate change, even with conflicting or non confirming data.   These scientists still suspect climate change even though...

"Using years of butterfly survey data and global climate change models, scientists have created predictions of warmer climate’s impact on butterfly populations in the U.K. These studies suggest that the populations of more than half the butterfly species in the U.K. are expected to expand in range, a circumstance that typically translates to a higher, more diverse population and a lower risk of extinction. "

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Disappe...he-1948718

Im not saying climate isnt a factor...but we are talking about 1.4 deg F while the daily swing is about 16 deg and the annual seasonal swing is 36 deg in the UK.  


Its not looking good for the inhabitants of space ship earth

"Loss of insect diversity and abundance is expected to provoke cascading effects on food webs and to jeopardize ecosystem services. Our understanding of the extent and underlying causes of this decline is based on the abundance of single species or taxonomic groups only, rather than changes in insect biomass which is more relevant for ecological functioning. Here, we used a standardized protocol to measure total insect biomass using Malaise traps, deployed over 27 years in 63 nature protection areas in Germany (96 unique location-year combinations) to infer on the status and trend of local entomofauna. Our analysis estimates a seasonal decline of 76%, and mid-summer decline of 82% in flying insect biomass over the 27 years of study. We show that this decline is apparent regardless of habitat type, while changes in weather, land use, and habitat characteristics cannot explain this overall decline. This yet unrecognized loss of insect biomass must be taken into account in evaluating declines in abundance of species depending on insects as a food source, and ecosystem functioning in the European landscape."

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29045418

“if we lose the insects, then everything is going to collapse.”


Mankind had better stop poisoning the ecosphere 
we are healthy with background radiation but unhealthy with the same dose from fallout
 
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#6
Dont believe for one second that science has figured out the full relationship of nuclear radiation and the living world, including your body

"As a human being, one has been endowed with just enough intelligence to be able to see clearly how utterly inadequate that intelligence is when confronted with what exists."   Einstein
we are healthy with background radiation but unhealthy with the same dose from fallout
 
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