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Krypton-85 & Climate
Book found via Majia today (her 30 July post - http://majiasblog.blogspot.com.uy/2017/0...iichi.html)

Arming Mother Nature by Jacob Darwin Hamblin https://jacobdarwinhamblin.com/books/arm...-nature-2/

Some of the reviews

“The original doom-mongers were not sounding the alarm; they were riding into battle.”

—Fred Pearce in The New Scientist

“Hamblin’s analysis of Cold War-era archives in both Europe and the US is even-handed and extensive, and ultimately chilling.”

—Jan McGirk in China Dialogue

We should look to the past when responding to anthropogenic climate change… Jacob Darwin Hamblin goes further in Arming Mother Nature, arguing that Soviet and US plans to unleash environmental disasters on each other’s blocs have contributed to today’s lack of political will over climate change.”

—Cyrus C. M. Mody in Nature

“Jacob Hamblin’s new book is a clearly and calmly told tale of the American effort to conscript nature -from the seafloor to the stratosphere -for potential active duty during the Cold War. Well researched in U.S. and European archives, it finds the roots of modern apocalyptic environmentalism in the hair-raising deeds and often hare-brained schemes of an American scientific-military complex under pressure to find ways to prevail against the USSR. It sheds new light on the old adage that it is a miracle anyone survived the Cold War.”

–J.R. McNeill, Georgetown University

“A well-written and -documented challenge of some of the assumptions on both sides in the debate about global warming.”

—Kirkus Reviews
just pm me if needed.
Majia asks - Would Fukushima's ongoing tritium releases change the properties of the fog and steam surrounding the plant through tritiation?

I've read that tritium produces larger hail.  No link handy, but I think it was a Japanese study.  

I was able to dig up this quote from 2015. I posted this in her comments for her research.

“Thus it is concluded that the presence of these radio-nuclides in atmospheric aerosols can increase their seeding capability and more fog can form in the atmosphere. Therefore the presence of radioactive aerosols is also one of the so many factors responsible for fog formation.” 6 Issue 14 Gohar Ali, E.U. Khan, N. Ali, H. A. Khan, A. Waheed http://www.pmd.gov.pk/rnd/rnd_files/vol7...harAli.pdf
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."

"Today I had lunch with a friend who is an atmospheric chemist and we discussed how tritium in fog, or tritiated fog, might differ from ordinary fog.

We had a great discussion that I will follow up on later with implications drawn for webcam watching."
just pm me if needed.
I hope Majia does get a write up on the characteristics of tritium fog posted.  With some hints what to look for maybe I could find some examples to post.  

The KR-85 additions made by the Nuke industry got some attention from ENENewsers.

Not as much scientific research available to the public as we might like; most research behind paywalls.  I've tried digging up more info to add to our discussion.  The first thing I want to mention is that I think earth's climate is driven by solar influences.  Nuclear pollutants are not forcing climate change but they could be having unforeseen consequences.  Climate scientists have pushed CO2 as the biggest problem in the climate debate while lightly skipping over the other greenhouse gases.  

Nuclear bomb tests created the holes in the ozone layer
Quote:He is quoted in the New Zealand Herald that this test is partly to blame for the hole and says gradual depletion of ozone by chemical reactions would lead to a generalised thinning of the layer as the pollutants spread throughout the atmosphere, whereas massive nuclear blasts in the upper atmosphere would produce instant holes. With the rise of the global warming phenomenon everyone was overlooking the probability that the ozone hole was largely involved. Yet they were pointing the finger at fossil-burning emissions.
Read more at: http://www.thestar.co.uk/news/nuclear-bo...-1-7174504

Smaller Solar Events Now Dangerous To Earth!
Peter Daley ( 14th May 2016 )
Quote:A lot of people are not aware that the earth’s magnetic shield has weakened by ~15% in the last 150 years. This is one of the earth’s primary defences against solar flares and coronal mass ejections from the Sun. The other is the earth’s atmosphere.

Krypton-85: How nuclear power plants cause climate change
Quote:Why should we be interested in the Krypton-85 concentration in our atmosphere? Krypton-85 has a number of interesting effects. As a beta-emitter, Krypton-85 is capable of ionizing our atmosphere. This leads to the formation of ozone.2 In the stratosphere, we’re quite happy to witness the formation of ozone, as it protects us against harmful radiation from the sun. On the other hand, in the troposphere, the layer of the atmosphere beneath the stratosphere, the formation of ozone is a big problem. Unfortunately, Krypton-85’s ozone formation in the stratosphere is minor compared to that by cosmic rays.
If 85Kr continues to increase, changes in such atmospheric processes and properties as atmospheric electric conductivity, ion current, the Earth’s magnetic field, formation of cloud condensation nuclei and aerosols, and frequency of lightning may result and thus disturb the Earth’s heat balance and precipitation patterns. These 85Kr-induced consequences call for 85Kr monitoring.6

Styro, B., & Butkus, D. (1991) Geophysical problems of Krypton-85 in the atmosphere.  Print book format

The radioactivity of atmospheric krypton in 1949–1950

MNP Report 500116003/2007
The effect of a nuclear energy expansion strategy in Europe on
health damages from air pollution
J.C. Bollen and H.C. Eerens
pg 23,24
Quote:Textbox 1: Krypton-85 accumulation in the atmosphere
Krypton-85 is a long-lived radioactive isotope which is naturally released into the atmosphere in small quantities (Harrison and Apsimon, 1994), approximately 5.2 1013 Bq/yr and, in larger quantities artificially (1017-1018 Bq/yr). It has steadily accumulated in the atmosphere since 1945 (from <0.2 Bg/m3), when anthropogenic nuclear activities started, and reaches 1.3 Bq/m3 nowadays.
Ion production
The principal concern with krypton-85 release is not a radiological/medical one, as population doses are small (Boeck, 1976), but the possible disturbance of the global electrical system (Legasov et al, 1984, Tertyshnik et al., 1977). It is known from nuclear weapon testing (Huzita, 1966) that atmospheric radioactivity increases air’s natural conductivity. The conductivity of air is proportional to the (small) ion concentration. These ions are formed naturally in atmospheric air at a rate (near the surface) of about 10 ion-pairs cm-3 s-1 (Chalmers, 1967). There are three major sources of these ions: airborne alpha radiation, cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma radiation. Near the Earth’s surface, gamma radiation from the soil is the chief source of ionization, due to the nuclear decay in the Earth’s crust. This accounts for about 80% of the
ionization near the surface. The remaining ionization is caused by cosmic rays, whose intensity increases greatly with height. Ionization over the oceans is considerably lower, since there is no gamma contribution and a greatly reduced amount of airborne alpha radiation.
The removal of ions can take place through two mechanisms: ion-ion recombination and ion-aerosol attachment. In the last case the particles become electrically charged (Fuchs, 1963). In the steady state, the bipolar ion production rate q per unit volume and the ion loss rates are balanced, given by (Harrison and Apsimon, 1994):  q-αn2-βnZ=0 (1)
Where α is defined as the ion-ion recombination coefficient (1.6,10-6 cm3.s-1, e.g. Gringel et al, 1978) and β is the attachment coefficient between an ion and aerosol particle. β depends on the aerosol particle radius and charge (Gunn, 1954). Z is aerosol particle number concentration per unit volume, and n is the average ion number concentration. At higher aerosol concentration (i.e. 10 μg/m3 with 0.2 μm radius particles) n is dominated by aerosol-ion attachments. From
the formula it becomes clear that a change in conductivity can occur due to an increase in the production rate q (by, for example the additional ionization caused by krypton-85) or a change in aerosol concentration (increase will decrease conductivity).
Change in conductivity by krypton-85
The amount of extra ionization caused by the beta radiation can be found by using the average beta energy (0.249 MeV) for krypton-85. For a krypton-85 concentration of Ckr Bq/m3 the ionization rate is: qkr=(2.49.105/35).Ckr. (2)
Assuming a surface ionization rate qo of 10 ion-pairs cm-3.s-1 the change in ion production is:
dq/q0 = 7.11.10-4 Ckr. (3)
Over the oceans, where q0 is about one-fifth of its continental value, the fractional change will be corresponding larger. The concentration of krypton falls with density (height) of air:
Ckr(z)= c(0)e-z/8561, where c(0) is the surface concentration. (4)
Combining ion production from the crust and cosmic ray, a maximum share of krypton-85 ion production can be expected at a height of 500-1500m, about twice the value at the surface and at a surface concentration of 1.3 Bq/m3 , a change of 2‰ in ion concentration at 1000 m can be expected . Locally, near a nuclear waste processing plant, the share can increase to approximately 20% (Clarke, 1979). Note that the conductivity above mountainous (remote) areas (Antarctic, Himalaya, determines the Earths resistance and interaction with the ionsphere.
Consequence for the atmospheric system
• It is generally assumed, although surrounded with some uncertainty and controversial (Illingworth and Latham, 1975), that thunderstorms provide the earth with a small negative charge. The slight conductivity of the atmosphere (see above) creates a small, opposite “fair weather current” (E= + 100 V.m-1, J ~2 pA.m-2 at the surface). Considering the earth as a spherical capacitor (with Ct ~2.8 Farads) it would lose it’s charge (τ ~667 s) in about an hour. The earth needs therefore continuously be charged by approximately 2000 thunderstorms
(Schonland, 1953). A change of 0.1% could therefore be compared with the equivalent of two continually active thunderstorms. The interaction between an increasing conductivity and thunderstorms remains unclear although there are suggestions (Spangler and Rosenkilde, 1979) that it would weaken thunderstorm lighting.
• Recently there have been some suggestions that charged ions can, even at small concentrations, can have a (substantial?) effect on the formation of certain type’s of clouds (Marsh and Svensmark; 2000, Harrison, 2000; Carslaw et al., 2002) . If confirmed this would imply that a changing concentration of krypton-85 could affect to some extent the earth’s climate.3

My opinion is that nuclear inputs did the most damage punching holes in the ozone layer.  This has left planet earth more vulnerable to CMEs, solar variables, and cosmic ray influences.  The Fukushima Daiichi disaster displayed some unusual local weather phenomena on the tepcams.  I had never seen red lightning before and went looking for a scientific explanation.  About the same time I was investigating the Electric Universe theories that offered a better explanation of weather phenomena than the CO2 theory of climate change.  I'm really not learned enough to offer conclusions but I am offering a few observations that I think are important to the climate debate.  


Why Hurricanes Irma & Harvey are So Powerful, What They Aren't Telling You (451)
Adapt 2030

The Electric Hurricanes of 2005
Apr 20, 2006
Quote:But the answer becomes both simple and undeniable once the electrical nature of the solar system is admitted. An electric solar system could hardly exclude an electric Earth. And once we see electrical phenomena on Earth in relation to the larger circuitry, our planet's atmosphere can be compared to the leaky dielectric in a “self-repairing capacitor”: the charge is already waiting in the ionosphere to be unleashed in storms in the atmosphere. We have seen the electrical connection of thunderstorms to the ionosphere in the appearance of giant lightning bursts to space. These electrical displays have been named “red sprites” and “blue jets”.

Adding a 'radioactive cathode' to the circuit like the Daiichi emissions did gave the webcam watchers a glimpse of what nuclear inputs could do to local weather.  Do a search on 'radioactive cathodes' to see how krypton-85 is used in electrical circuits to amplify current and regulate voltage.  The weather phenomena is a manifestation of electrical phenomena that simple 'global warning' doesn't explain.
September 14, 2017 at 9:30 pm • Reply
I observed in 2011, that small solar storm events where producing Northern Light displays, way down into Southern states in the USA. I have been a sun watcher for many years, and know it was very unusual for such small solar events to produce such Northern Light displays, so far south.
Our atmosphere is an electrical system, and these unusual Northern lights displays indicated that the electrical dynamics of the upper atmosphere had been changed by the large radioactive releases from the Fukushima Nuclear Catastrophe.
Vital1 contributes more information connecting Fukushima Daiichi radioactive releases to the 2011 damage to the arctic ozone hole and related weather anomalies, including possible health effects from a damaged atmosphere.  
Quote:Planetary Thermal Imbalance & Extreme UV Levels in Summer!

Radiation contamination of the environment, on the scale of the Fukushima Nuclear Catastrophe, has much broader effects than just detectable increases of radiation in air and water spreading out from Japan. It affects the dynamics of the entire biosphere!
Excellent resource and reference, read Peter Daley's work at the Sunshine Coast Computer Club.  

Pia had some links in a screen grab on page one that I wanted to make clickable.  

Update and improvement of the global krypton-85 emission inventory   (abstract)
“Krypton-85 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors by fission of uranium and plutonium and released during chopping and dissolution of spent fuel rods in nuclear reprocessing facilities. As noble gas it is suited as a passive tracer for evaluation of atmospheric transport models. Furthermore, research is ongoing to assess its quality as an indicator for clandestine reprocessing activities. This paper continues previous efforts to compile a comprehensive historic emission inventory for krypton-85.
Reprocessing facilities are the by far largest emitters of krypton-85. Information on sources and calculations used to derive the annual krypton-85 emission is provided for all known reprocessing facilities in the world. In addition, the emission characteristics of two plants, Tokai (Japan) and La Hague (France), are analysed in detail using emission data with high temporal resolution. Other types of krypton-85 sources are power reactors, naval reactors and isotope production facilities. These sources contribute only little or negligible amounts of krypton-85 compared to the large reprocessing facilities. Taking the decay of krypton-85 into account, the global atmospheric inventory is estimated to about 5500 PBq at the end of 2009. The correctness if the inventory has been proven by meteorological simulations and its error is assumed to be in the range of a few percent.”

http://www.ecoindustry.ru/didyouknow/view/53.html     (scroll down for pics of lightning, text is in Russian)
Index of publications in english

Atom Trap, Krypton-81, and Saharan Water
“We are developing the Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) method for the trace analysis of two long-lived krypton isotopes, 81Kr (t1/2 = 2.3x105 years, isotopic abundance ~ 10-13) and 85Kr (t1/2 = 10.8 years, isotopic abundance ~ 10-12).”

Atmospheric Environment, 3 articles
What is a petabecqueral (unit).  http://www.aqua-calc.com/what-is/radioac...abecquerel

The EPA isn't restricting krypton-85 releases by the nuke industry.  Krypton-85 is being released faster than it decays and the accumulation is having far reaching consequences.
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."
Thanks for collecting the links - I don't have the capacity to make those clickable, had to reduce my typing to cut down pain occurrences. And, I really appreciate you bringing these links up. Very climate-wise of you. Smile
just pm me if needed.
YW Pia, thanks for contributing as you can. We all need a little help now and then. The KR-85 information is important to understanding climate issues. Our weather is a complex system and science does a great disservice reducing it to just CO2 inputs. The sun heats our planet; our atmosphere protects the planet from too much; and the oceans store and circulate that heat. Small changes to those inputs show large changes in the weather that affects mankind's viability on this planet. Science is only beginning to explore the electrical aspects powering the system. Anyone claiming that climate science is settled is no scientist. I was glad to add Peter Daley's work to the discussion. Our small contributions might have a larger impact than we can see yet.
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."
Peter's done a great job collecting and testing samples, tracking global radiation, reporting his findings and pointing to others' work. There's more than a few entries in CRL of his work, search CRL for Daley to find all. You are so right when you say "Anyone claiming that climate science is settled is no scientist" - science does evolve as we make more discoveries.
just pm me if needed.
There's a RationalWiki [[https://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Krypton-85_and_climate_change|RationalWiki Page]] claiming that Krypton-85 does not cause climate change and is in fact a hoax perpetrated by anti-nuclear activists. It is important to note that the International Atomic Energy Agency hosts scientific research which shows that Krypton-85 does, in fact, impact climate. Note: I intended to post this at RationalWiki, but their system is blocking me from submitting it. So, I'll clean up the code later.

{{Quotebox|The study shows that krypton-85 from nuclear fission enhances air ionization and, thus, interferes with the atmospheric-electrical system and the water balance of the earth atmosphere. This is reason for concern: There are unforeseeable effects for weather and climate if the krypton-85 content of the earth atmosphere continues to rise. There may be a krypton-specific greenhouse effect and a collapse of the natural atmospheric-electrical field}}.

As is the case in many environmental impacts of man-made pollutants, little research is available to ascertain correctly the impacts of Krypton-85 on earth's climate. That said, monitoring of Krypton-85 was conducted by the Moscow Physical Engineering Institute CMPED, Russia and the Air Resources Laboratory (ARL), of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration between 1992 and 1998.

Their stated goals were:

{{Quotebox|1. To monitoring Kr-85 pollution of the atmosphere in Russia.

2. To conduct a joint cooperative program in measurement and archiving Kr-85 between the Moscow Physical Engineering Institute (MPEI), Russia and the Air Resources Laboratory (AIR) of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

3. To develop a new Kr-85 detector system for operation as part of Global Atmospheric Watch of the World Meteorological Organization.

4. To construct and manufacture two completes of the equipment for constant monitoring Krypton-85.

5. To predict the possible effect of accumulating Kr-85 in future climate.

6. To explore and refine international agreements on the limitation of Kr-85 in the atmosphere.}}

Krypton-85 is a significant enough pollutant that these agencies found it necessary to spend years of time and money collaborating on policies and procedures to understand and project it's impacts on climate. These agencies can hardly be labeled as anti-nuclear activists. Research that does exist is focused on emissions from operational nuclear facilities and previous weapons testing, not the remains of Chernobyl, or Fukushima.

In 2007, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency published The effect of a nuclear energy expansion strategy in Europe on health damages from air pollution and stated:

{{Quotebox|From a sustainable, precautionary principle, further accumulation of Kr-85 should be limited, by limiting the quantity of radionuclides be emitted from waste processing plants, which can be dependent on the growth of nuclear waste removal capacity.}}

Again we find that an agency, not anti-nuclear activists, expressing clear concern about potential impacts of Krypton-85.

in 1994, R.G.Harrison and H.M. ApSimon published research titled, Krypton-85 pollution and atmospheric electricity and stated:

{{Quotebox|Increases in conductivity will produce uncertain effects on atmospheric phenomena, so changes are compared in magnitude with other factors perturbing the conductivity, such as combustion aerosol burdens, volcanic eruptions and nuclear weapons testing. Conductivity changes are expected to have the greatest significance for meteorological phenomena close to the source.}}

Once again, this research is not from anti-nuclear activists. Knowing that nuclear facilities emit Krypton-85 and that this pollutant does have impacts on earth's climate, more research results must be published so global citizens may understand that impacts of nuclear on climate change is no hoax.

<ref>Climate risks by radioactive krypton-85 from nuclear fission. Atmospheric-electrical and air-chemical effects of ionizing radiation in the atmosphere. Authors: Kollert, R.Bund fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany). Landesverband Baden-Wuerttemberg; Gewaltfreie Aktion Kaiseraugst, Liestal (Switzerland); Bund Naturschutz in Bayern e.V., Muenchen (Germany). https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx...29</ref&gt;.

<ref>Monitoring Krypton-85 [http://www.istc.int/en/project/045B0FE6043D5D8F4325691F00186158 http://www.istc.int/en/project/045B0FE60...].</ref&gt;

<ref>Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency [http://www.pbl.nl/sites/default/files/cms/publicaties/500116003.pdf http://www.pbl.nl/sites/default/files/cm...f]</ref&gt;.

<ref>Krypton-85 pollution and atmospheric electricity [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/1352231094900418 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...8]</ref&gt;
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