• Thank you for visiting the Cafe Rad Lab Forum
  • We present & discuss radiation health, science & news
  • To keep you informed about vital nuke information.
Hello There, Guest! Login Register

Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Comment & References
This is by no means a complete list of all possible references. I used these in my comment to the NRC on LNT v Hormesis (comment period closes 19 Nov 2015). Not all refs are linked, but are easily found by title author/source. If you come across a link that does not work, please let me know. All comments for the proposed rule change are located at the Federal Register. My documents are listed here: https://www.regulations.gov/?utm_campaig...-0057-0043

1. The Chernobyl Catastrophe Consequences on Human Health Greenpeace, Amsterdam,
the Netherlands http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/planet-2/ report/2006/4/chernobylhealthreport.pdf Revised version. Published May 2006.
2. Depositional fluxes and residence time of atmospheric radioiodine (I-131) from the Fukushima accident Department of Marine Science, University of Southern Mississippi, 1020 Balch Blvd., Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity (Impact Factor: 3.57). 05/2012; 113:32-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad. 2012.04.003.
3. Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation- monitored workers (INWORKS): an international cohort study Klervi Leuraud, David B Richardson, Elisabeth Cardis, Robert D Daniels, Michael Gillies, Jacqueline A O’Hagan, Ghassan B Hamra, Richard Haylock, Dominique Laurier, Monika Moissonnier, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, and Ausrele Kesminiene Published 22 June online by Lancet Haematol 2015; 2: e276–81; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ S2352-3026(15)00094-0.
4. A possible association between fetal/neonatal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation and the increased incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD); Kane, Robert C.; Medical Hypotheses , Volume 62 , Issue 2 , 195 - 197.
5. Radiation and Children: The Ignored Victims Nuclear Information and Resource Service 1424 16th Street NW, #404, Washington, DC 20036;202.328.0002; fax: 202.462.2183 www.nirs.org/radiation/radiationandchildren.pdf.
6. Strong effects of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl on mutation rates Published 10 February 2015 Møller, Anders Pape & Mousseau, Timothy A.; Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 8363doi:10.1038/srep08363.
7. Genomic Instability Induced by Ionizing Radiation Streffer, Christian; Universitätsklinikum Essen, 45122 Essen, Germany PS-1-3.
8. Comparative biology of mouse versus human cells: modelling human cancer in mice Annapoorni Rangarajan and Robert A. Weinberg December 2003 | VOLUME 3, pp. 952-959.

9. MIT No-Evacuations Study Debunked Goddard's Journal, Ian Goddard 5 June 2012 https://www.youtube.com/watch? [/url]
10. A Radioactive Conflict of Interest, Robert Alvarez 25 June 2012 [url=www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-alvarez/mit-radiation-study_b_1623899.html]www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-alvarez/mit-radiation-study_b_1623899.html
11. Biological Research on Low Doses, Operational Issues in Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Decommissioning An International Summer School 6th edition Giovanetti, Anna; ENEA UTBIORADCR Casaccia Rome, Italy, 8-12 September 2014, ISPRA JRC (Varese, Italy).

12. The impacts of permanent irradiation on the flora of the eastern ural radioactive trace
Pozolotina VN, Antonova EV, Karimullina EM, Kharitonova OV, Pustovalova LA Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiiskaia Akademiia Nauk [2009, 49(1): 97-106] Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, English Abstract.
13. Assessment of radiation impact on Stellaria graminea cenopopulations in the zone of the Eastern Ural Radioactive Trace Russian Journal of Ecology V. N. Pozolotina, E. V. Antonova, E. M. Karimullina 23 November 2010, Volume 41, Issue 6, pp 459-468
14. Public health activities for mitigation of radiation exposures and risk communication challenges after the Fukushima nuclear accident Tsutomu Shimura, Ichiro Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Terada, Erik Robert Svendsen and Naoki Kunugita Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, 2-3-6 Minami, Wako, Saitama 351-0197, Japan. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology, Accepted February 16, 2015.
15. Understanding the Health Impacts and Risks of Exposure to Radiation Taylor A. Choi, Sylvain V. Costes, Rebecca J. Abergel Reflections on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident 2 December 2014, pp 259-281.
16. Examples of regulatory costs for nuclear energy development Rod Adams December 7, 2011 atomicinsights.com/examples-of-regulatory-costs-for-nuclear-energy-development/
17. Radiation Basics Prepared 8/99 by Cindy Folkers, Nuclear Information and Resource Service, 1424 16th Street, NW, #404, Washington, DC 20036. Phone: 202-328-0002. Fax: 202-462-2183. E-mail: nirsnet@nirs.org. Web: www.nirs.org/radiation/ radiationbasics.pdf.
18. The toxicity of engineered nanoparticles on seed plants chronically exposed to low- level environmental radiation E. Karimullina, E. Antonova, V. Pozolotina, A. Tokarev, S. Minko; Russian Journal of Ecology, 28 May 2015, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 236-245.
19. Radiation: The Myth of the Millirem Nuclear Information and Resource Service 1424 16th Street NW, #404, Washington, DC 20036;202.328.0002; fax: 202.462.2183 http:// http://www.nirs.org/factsheets/mythmilliremfctsht.pdf.
20. Compilation of Radiation Studies Showing Health Effects Compiled by Cindy Folkers & Mary Olson on 4/24/98, Nuclear Information & Resource Service, 1424 16 th St, NW Suite 404, Washington, DC 20036 (202)328-0002 www.nirs.org/radiation/radchart.htm.
21. “Hormesis”—An Inappropriate Extrapolation from the Specific to the Universal DEBORAH AXELROD, MD, KATHY BURNS, PHD, DEVRA DAVIS, PHD, MPH,NICOLAS VON LAREBEKE, MD, MPH; INT J OCCUP ENVIRON HEALTH 2004; 10:335–339 VOL 10/NO 3, JUL/SEP 200, pp. 335-339.
22. ALARA: The History and Science of Radiation Safety Michael Baumer http:// large.stanford.edu/courses/2015/ph241/baumer2/ March 14, 2015 Submitted as coursework for PH241, Stanford University, Winter 2015.
23. Weaknesses in EPA’s Management of the Radiation Network System Demand Attention Report No. 12-P-0417 19 April 2012 www.epa.gov/oig/reports/ 2012/20120419-12-P-0417.pdf.
minor edits 17 July 2015
24. RadNet Air Monitoring: Functioning Beta Stations listed by date and operational status www.enviroreporter.com/radnet-air-monitoring.
25. Radiation Dose Effects in Relation to Obstetric X-Rays and Childhod Cancers Alice Stewart, G.W Kneale Department of Social Medicine, University of Oxford, United Kingdom Volume 295, Issue 7658, 6 June 1970, Pages 1185–1188 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673670917824.
26. Tell EPA to keep mobile radiation monitoring lab for nuclear accidents in western U.S. org2.salsalabs.com/o/5502/p/dia/action3/common/public/? action_KEY=20657#.VX8R16Xl6zg.twitter.
27. "Dangerous Decision" Could Leave Californians Vulnerable After Nuclear Disaster www.nbclosangeles.com/video/#!/on-air/as-seen-on/Dangerous-Decision-Could-Leave- Californians-Vulnerable-After-Nuclear-Disaster/307088581.
28. EPA plan to move radiation lab out of Vegas draws protests 24 June 2015 www.reviewjournal.com/news/las-vegas/epa-plan-move-radiation-lab-out-vegas-draws-protests.
29. Why the swine www.superpig.it/en/background/why-the-swine.html
30. Swine as Models in Biomedical Research and Toxicology Testing Michael M. Swindle, Veterinary Pathology 2012, 49(2) 344-356; Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Comparative Medicine, MSC 777, 114 Doughty St, Charleston, SC 29425-7770 vet.sagepub.com/content/49/2/344.full
31. Deconstructing Radiation Hormesis Mossman, Kenneth L. Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-3501 Health Phys. 80(3):263–269; 2001 www.groenerekenkamer.nl/ grkfiles/images/Mossman.pdf.
32. Implications for human and environmental health of low doses of ionising radiation Radiobiology and Environmental Security Carmel E. Mothersill, Colin B. Seymour pp. 43-51 Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4K1, ON, Canada.
33. Radiological Bioconcentration Factors for Aquatic,Terrestrial, and Wetland Ecosystems at the Savannah River Site (U) G.P. Friday, C.L. Cummins, and A.L. Schwartzman Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. DE-AC09-89SR18035 pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1016/ML101600579.pdf.
34. Health Effects of Prenatal Radiation Exposure PAMELA M. WILLIAMS, LT COL, USAF, MC, David Grant Medical Center, Travis Air Force Base, California STACY FLETCHER, CAPT, USAF, MC, Ehrling Bergquist Clinic, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska Am Fam Physician. 2010 Sep 1;82(5):488-493. www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0901/p488.html.
35. The Impact of Radiotherapy on Fertility, Pregnancy, and Neonatal Outcomes of Female Cancer Patients Jennifer Y. Wo, M.D. and Akila N. Viswanathan, M.D., M.P.H. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2865903/ Int J Radiation Oncololgy Biology / Physics 2009 Apr 1; 73(5): 1304–1312.
36. Biological Effects of Radiation USNRC Technical Training Center Reactor Concepts
Manual www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/teachers/09.pdf
37. The Impact of Uterine Radiation on Subsequent Fertility and Pregnancy Outcomes BioMed Research International Wan Tinn Teh, Catharyn Stern, Sarat Chander, and Martha Hickey www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/482968/ Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 482968, 8 pages.
38. Residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer in never smoking women María Torres Duran, Alberto Ruano Ravina, Isaura Parente Lamelas, Virginia Leiro Fernandez, José Abal Arca, Carmen Montero Martinez, Carolina Pena ALvarez, Javier Gonzalez Barcala, Olalla Castro Añon, Antonio Golpe Gomez, Cristina Martínez, Maria Jose Mejuto Martí, Alberto Fernandez Villar and Juan Miguel Barros Dios, ERJ September 1, 2014 vol. 44 no. Suppl 58 P2734.
39. Geographic variation in radon and associated lung cancer risk in Canada Perry Hystad, Michael Brauer, Paul A. Demers, Kenneth C. Johnson, Eleanor Setton, Alejandro Cervantes-Larios, Karla Poplawski, Alana McFarlane, Alan Whitehead, Anne-Marie Nicol journal.cpha.ca/index.php/cjph/article/view/4002.
40. Differences in Lung Cancer Mortality Trends From 1986–2012 By Radon Risk Areas in British Columbia, Henderson, Sarah B.; Rauch, Stephen A.; Hystad, Perry; Kosatsky, Tom, Canada Health Physics: May 2014 - Volume 106 - Issue 5 - p 608–613 journals.lww.com/ health-physics/Abstract/2014/05000/ Differences_in_Lung_Cancer_Mortality_Trends_From.10.aspx
41. What are the risks from medical X-rays and other low dose radiation? B F Wall, BSc, , G M Kendall, PhD, , A A Edwards, MSc, , S Bouffler, PhD, , C R Muirhead, PhD, , and J R Meara, FFPH, Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon. OX11 0RQ, UK 2005 www.birpublications.org/doi/abs/10.1259/bjr/55733882?journalCode=bjr.
42. What Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima can teach about the next one Edward Moore Geist April 28, 2014 thebulletin.org/what-three-mile-island-chernobyl-and-fukushima-can-teach-about-next-one7104.
43. Knowing Endangerment: Worker Exposure to Toxic Vapors at the Hanford Tank Farms September 2003 The Government Accountability Project (GAP) www.hanfordchallenge.org/cmsAdmin/uploads/2003_Knowing_Endangerment_002.pdf.
44. Hanford Tank Vapor Assessment Report Savannah River National Laboratory October 30, 2014 SRNL-RP-2014-00791 srnl.doe.gov/documents/ Hanford_TVAT_Report_2014-10-30-FINAL.pdf
45. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area, T. Iimoto, H. Fujii, S. Oda, T. Nakamura, R. Hayashi, R. Kuroda, M. Furusawa, T. Umekage and Y. Ohkubo Radiation Protection Dosimetry 2012 rpd.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/ 2012/08/25/rpd.ncs224.short
46. 250 mSv: Temporary Increase in the Emergency Exposure Dose Limit in Response to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident and Its Decision Making Process Shojiro Yasui Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene Volume 12, Issue 4, 2015 pp. D35-D42 www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15459624.2014.989366#.VZ_90be07M0.
47. Long term behavior of radioactive plume of TEPCO FNPP1 released 134Cs and 137Cs in the North Pacific Ocean through the end of 2014 Aoyama, Michio; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Hamajima, Yasunori; Kumamoto, Yuichiro EGU General Assembly 2015, held 12-17 April, 2015 in Vienna, Austria. id.3132 http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/E...3132-3.pdf.
48. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in macrofungi from Galicia (NW Spain): Influence of environmental and genetic factors M.A. Garcíaa, J. Alonsoa, b, M.J. Melgara, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety Volume 115, May 2015, pp. 152–158.
49. Radioactivity studies on farm raised and wild catfish produced in Mississippi, USA J. Billa, F. Han, S. Didla, H. Yu, J. Dimpah, O. Brempong, S. Adzanu Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry May 2015 doi:10.1007/s10967-015-4159-5.
50. ML15051A503 Marcus pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1508/ML15083A002.pdf
51. ML15057A349 Miller pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1508/ML15083A003.pdf
52. ML15075A200 Doss et al pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1508/ML15083A004.pdf

Addendum A: List of news found via google searches regarding radiation exposures (LNT v Hormesis) https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7PbzAzkdGjNUGdQcFZ4NVg0YjQ/view? usp=sharing
Addendum B: Nuclear Energy Enshrined in Public Law through Finance, False Science, Intimidation, Lack of Ethics and Special Appointments https://drive.google.com/file/d/ 0B7PbzAzkdGjNUnVYNXhzQl9vUHc/view?usp=sharing

Addendum A

List of news found via google searches regarding radiation exposures (LNT v Hormesis)
Addendum B

[b]Nuclear Energy Enshrined in Public Law through Finance, False Science, Intimidation, Lack [/b][b]of Ethics and Special Appointments [/b]
just pm me if needed.
Thanks Pia
"All models are flawed, some are useful."
George E. P. Box
Two reports supporting continuation of the linear no-threshold model:

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Advisory Committee on the Medical Uses of Isotopes (ACMUI) Final Report on the Hormesis/Linear No-Threshold PetitionsOctober 28, 2015  http://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML1531/ML15310A418.pdf 

Comments of the Natural Resources Defense Council & Committee to Bridge the Gap on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’sNotice of Docketing Petitions for Rule making 10CFR Part 20 Linear No-Threshold Model and Standards of Protection Against Radiation Docket ID No.NRC-2015-0057 committeetobridgethegap.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/NRDC-CBG-Comments-LNT-Docket-19-Nov-2015.pdf

And, the Blue Book Published April 2016: EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population https://www.epa.gov/radiation/blue-book-...population

"A large body of epidemiological and radiobiological data support the risk models. In general, results from these data are consistent with a linear no-threshold (LNT: The assumption that the risk of cancer increases linearly as radiation dose increases. This means, for example, that doubling the dose doubles the risk and that even a small dose could result in a correspondingly small risk. Using current science, it is impossible to know what the actual risks are at very small doses.) dose response model in which the risk of inducing a cancer in tissue irradiated by low doses of radiation is proportional to the dose received."
just pm me if needed.
They've repackaged this old rule change proposal and you have until 30 May to submit your comments. Same cast of nuclear actors at play, Miller, Mohan & Doss.

Hormesis Advocates Dodge Scientific Rigor With Special Pleadings; Ties To Tobacco Industry-Koch Brothers Exposed By CHP Emeritus – US EPA Comment Deadline May 30th https://miningawareness.wordpress.com/20...-may-30th/

Comment to EPA here: https://www.regulations.gov/docket?D=EPA...-2018-0259
just pm me if needed.
EPA Press Office (press@epa.gov)

WASHINGTON (April 24, 2018) – Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Scott Pruitt signed a proposed rule to strengthen the science used in regulations issued by EPA. The rule will ensure that the regulatory science underlying Agency actions is fully transparent, and that underlying scientific information is publicly available in a manner sufficient for independent validation.

“The era of secret science at EPA is coming to an end,” said EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt. “The ability to test, authenticate, and reproduce scientific findings is vital for the integrity of rulemaking process. Americans deserve to assess the legitimacy of the science underpinning EPA decisions that may impact their lives.”

This proposed rule is in line with the scientific community’s moves toward increased data sharing to address the “replication crisis”—a growing recognition that a significant proportion of published research may not be reproducible. The proposal is consistent with data access requirements for major scientific journals like Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences as well as recommendations from the Bipartisan Policy Center’s Science for Policy Project and the Administrative Conference of the United States’ Science in the Administrative Process Project.

The proposed rule builds upon President Trump’s executive orders on regulatory reform and energy independence:

Executive Order 13777, issued in March 2017, provides that regulatory reform efforts shall attempt to identify “those regulations that rely in whole or in part on data, information, or methods that are not publicly available or that are insufficiently transparent to meet the standard of reproducibility.”

Executive Order 13783, also issued in March 2017, provides that “It is the policy of the United States that necessary and appropriate environmental regulations comply with the law, are of greater benefit than cost, when permissible, achieve environmental improvements for the American people, and are developed through transparent processes that employ the best available peer-reviewed science and economics.”

Chairman Lamar Smith (R-TX): “Administrator Pruitt’s announcement ensures that data will be secret no more. For too long, the EPA has issued rules and regulations based on data that has been withheld from the American people. It’s likely that in the past, the data did not justify all regulations. Today, Administrator Pruitt rightfully is changing business as usual and putting a stop to hidden agendas.”

Senator Mike Rounds (R-SD): “Sound, reliable science is vital to helping us make important policy decisions that impact the health of American families and their livelihoods. Inserting new levels of transparency in the EPA rulemaking process will help make the agency more accountable to the American people and help everyone understand the impact of EPA’s decisions. Today’s directive is a significant step toward making sure these decisions are not made behind closed doors with information accessible only to those writing the regulations, but rather in the full view of those who will be affected.”

Dr. Edward J. Calabrese, Professor, Environmental Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts: “The proposal represents a major scientific step forward by recognizing the widespread occurrence of non-linear dose responses in toxicology and epidemiology for chemicals and radiation and the need to incorporate such data in the risk assessment process.”

Dr. Louis Anthony (Tony) Cox, President, Cox Associates; Member, National Academy of Engineering; and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal Risk Analysis: “I believe that transparency and independent reproducibility of analyses and conclusions are bedrock principles of sound science. Some commentators have expressed concerns that making the data behind policy conclusions and recommendations accessible and transparent might threaten the privacy of individuals. But this concern can be fully met by applying current privacy-protection techniques for data analysis. These techniques have been developed and used successfully for years at the Census Bureau and elsewhere. Thus, we can have the scientific benefits of accessible data while protecting individual privacy.”

Dr. Jason Scott Johnston, Director, Olin Law and Economics Program, University of Virginia School of Law: “EPA’s proposed rule, Strengthening Transparency in Regulatory Science, is badly needed. “Best practice" among peer-edited scientific journals is to require that data and statistical routines used in published papers be posted online and/or made publicly available. To apply the same standards to research that EPA says justify regulations affecting billions of dollars in economic activity and millions of human lives is essential for those regulations to truly be scientifically based.”

Bruno Pigott, Commissioner of the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM): “IDEM supports transparency in rulemaking. Good, sound science leads to better regulations.”

Dr. George Wolff, Principal Scientist, Air Improvement Resource, Inc., and former Chairman of EPA’s Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (1992 – 1996): “In the development of regulations based on environmental studies, numerous subjective assumptions and choices must be made regarding the selection of data and models that have a profound impact on the strength of any statistical associations and even whether the associations are positive or negative. The appropriateness of the assumptions and choices are not adequately evaluated in the standard peer review process. That is why it is essential that the data and models be placed in the public domain for a more rigorous evaluation by qualified experts. The proposed regulation, Strengthening Transparency in Regulatory Science, will provide an opportunity for such evaluations.”

Read the April 30, 2018 Proposed Rule: Strengthening Transparency in Regulatory Science (PDF) link in the Federal Register.
just pm me if needed.
There are twenty five points which the EPA is seeking comments on for this proposed rule change affecting radiation exposure standards. Source: https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=E...-0259-0001

just pm me if needed.
Don Fitz on the book Energy: Missing From the Nuclear Story


"The author insists that only nuclear power can save humanity from energy poverty and, thus, rejection of nuclear power is elitist.  What about nuclear radiation poisoning, which is critical to nuclear dangers?  Rhodes presents a case which may well become the next generation of pro-nuclear apologies. Reviewing theories of 1926, he accuses Herman Muller of committing the original sin of radiation theory after his discovery that low doses of radiation caused genetic mutation in fruit flies. Muller developed the critically important “linear no-threshold” (LNT) model which postulates a “linear” relationship between the quantity of radiation received and the likelihood of cell damage, or, that there is no dose of radiation so small that it is without negative effects.

Rhodes’ attempts to discredit Muller have three disturbing characteristics. First, he bases his arguments on character attacks against scientists and environmentalists. Next, he minimizes or ignores large bodies of data.
Third, his arguments lack internal consistency as he repeatedly contradicts information from different parts of the book.  For example, on p. 324 he claims nuclear power is “carbon-free energy” but on p. 332 says nuclear power creates greenhouse gases during “construction, mining, fuel-processing, maintenance, and decommissioning.”

Rhodes borrows his denunciations of Muller from an article by Edward Calabrese, who brags to have unearthed evidence that Muller suppressed research in 1946. During his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Muller did not acknowledge that he had received a paper that Calabrese thinks contradicted the LNT theory.  Calabrese’ charge, repeated by Rhodes, is absurd, both because it is ridiculous to think that a Nobel Prize speech would be changed due to one unreplicated finding and because Muller was later instrumental in ensuring the publication of that paper.

It is currently Calabrese, rather than Muller, who is discredited, largely due to his increasingly weird assertions that acceptance of the LNT theory was due to “falsifying and fabricating the research record.”  Calabrese’s objectivity is also called into question by his funding from the nuclear industry and companies such as ExxonMobil, Dow Chemical, and General Electric.

Calabrese’s hostility could also be due to the near-universal rejection of his “hormesis” theory that small levels of radiation benefit human health. In 2006, Calabrese made arguments for hormesis to the international Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation which rejected them in favor of the LNT model. The LNT model is accepted by a long list of agencies and health organizations.

Many researchers have documented effects of low level radiation (LLR) from the various stages of nuclear power production, background radiation, X-rays and CT scans.  Since Muller’s first experiments on fruit flies, other studies show these insects being susceptible to radiation levels 50 times lower than found then.  As fruit fly research faded away, by the 1970s it was replicated with mice."
just pm me if needed.
Non-linear responses, different transistors have different response curves to reach full conductance.  Radio-iodine dose thresholds are different than radio-cesium dose thresholds.  Source matters as they have different absorption risks.  Nuclear fallout is something to be concerned about because it is different than pre-atomic background radiation sources.
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."
Code: What anti-nukers are making a fuss about regarding EPA's LNT is that pro-nukers want the feds to recognize their own/special version of radiation health paradigm, which ultimately puts more people at risk, especially women and children. LNT is not perfect, but it's a heckuva lot better than what Miller, Marcus, Doss, SARI et. al. want to replace it with.
just pm me if needed.
It's a Catch-22. If we push for revising nuclear guidelines now, with the cureent regime in charge, we'd probably wind up with a far worse set of guidance.
just pm me if needed.
That definitely has merit, but considering the persistent forces in the US and abroad that are tenaciously trying to corrupt the current LNT guidance, I can't help but think we'd have one heckuva uphill battle at this time. Should the Presidency, House & Senate solidly flip to dems in the next rounds of elections, then I think we'd have more leverage.
just pm me if needed.
There have been some calls to drop the LNT model as Code says. I haven't seen anything better to replace it with yet. Pia, sadly a blue wave takeover would not help either. Dems bow as low to the nuke industry as the Reps do. Dr. Ian Fairlie has some advice I think worth mentioning on his website. https://www.ianfairlie.org/?s=lnt

LNT: an idea which should be retired? No, it should be retained
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."
How do the ICRP and ECRR change the LNT model?  They have different coefficients, yes, and I think ECRR more realistic of the risk.  

The linear no-threshold theory of radiation risks
Quote:D. The Importance of LNT in Radiation Protection

Regardless of dissenting views on LNT, the reality is that most if not all concepts used in radiation protection today are strongly based on the LNT theory. For example, LNT allows radiation doses (i) to be averaged within an organ or tissue, (ii) to be added from different organs, and (iii) to be added over time. The LNT also underpins the concepts of absorbed dose, effective dose, committed dose, and the use of dose coefficients (eg Sv per Bq of a radionuclide).

The use of the LNT also permits
•the ICRP principle of limitation – ie annual dose limits/constraints
•the ICRP principle of optimization -ie comparison of practices
•radiation risk assessment at low and very low doses
•individual dosimetry with passive detectors
•the use of collective dose, and
•the use of dose registers over long periods of time.

In fact, the LNT underpins all legal regulations in radiation protection. Indeed if the LNT were not used, it’s hard to imagine our current radiation protection systems existing at all.

The ECRR doesn't argue against LNT.  It argues against the multipliers used by the ICRP to determine risk.  Both ICRP and ECRR dose coefficients would still be a linear response at low dose, LNT, just a different slope to the line.  I think we could agree that a better LNT model would use ECRR annual dose limits/constraints instead of ICRP recommendations.
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."
Horse: I was thinking about the younger, thinking, people who are getting elected, like Tulsi Gabbard,not so much the 'blue wave' in general. With more people in office employing critical thinking and analysis, unlike the rubber-stamping, mindless lifers on the hill, there is greater opportunity to crack the calcified 'brain' of those charged with looking out for the people. For me, it isn't about party affiliation, though I'd steer clear of repugs. Yes, dems have a bad record also.
just pm me if needed.
Big Grin 
Here's an idea. Pile up all the documented radiation damages to health, realize the LNT debate plays into maintaining nuclear enterprises (energy & weapons) and declare that nuclear radiation is simply too damaging to carbon based life and eliminate all nuclear ventures, There. Problem solved. No need to wade through volumes of radiation data & propaganda. Time saved can be spent on securing the future.  Heart
just pm me if needed.
Code - "But the big factor that sets nuke fallout apart is the internal particulate form. One reason why the linear dosimetry is so misleading. A single microscopic particle of fallout in a fetus may be enough to deform an animal. Doctors would never even measure it. Animal life sends out the danger signal to the non radiated tissue, and even to other animals. Make no mistake about it....a dose of ZERO radiation from fallout still has a radioactive effect. A SIGNIFICANT one."

A signifcant study of the unborn and dead babies along the Columbia River in Washingtonstate ought help clear up any legitimacy concerns - being so affected by Hanford.
just pm me if needed.
The debate of LNT vs Hormesis is about the allowable risk and only a probability anyway.  Instruments measuring invisible rays and nuclear particles tell us only so much about what those heavier atomic elements will do to other matter.  Allowing those toxins to contaminate the rest of the world is just wrong in the first place.  I would borrow Lucas' signature line.

"All models are flawed, some are useful."
George E. P. Box

ICRP is useful in protecting nuclear science and industry whereas the ECRR would be more useful in protecting public health.  Code, make it LNT ECRR not LNT ICRP, adjusting the range for a better working model and the nuke industry resists.  They are willing to take any risk to have nuclear weaponry and space batteries and nuclear medicine.  

Code - I know someone who lost a newborn girl to a brain tumor, post Fukushima.  The scientists proclaim it is impossible to prove causation, and that the dose from Fukushima is so low compared to background radiation that it is nearly impossible that child died because of Fukushima.  But when you throw out the LNT ICRP concept, Fukushima fallout adds to the list of toxic stressors contributing to all pathologies, ...and you realize that a single hot particle could very well be the cause

Yes, it was last month, a nephew of sorts in his early twenties, a brain cancer, post Fuku...   what you said.  

The radiation source should always be contained and not scattered carelessly about.
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."
The dose coefficients in the ICRP allows more exposure than ECRR would.  Take the fight to adopting ECRR risk factors for the industry standard.  The nuke industry can't exist in its present form if held to higher standards.  The people making radiation measurements aren't the ones determining how dangerous it is.  The studies that nuclear scientists used were cherry picked to disregard as many health effects as possible and they didn't have some of the more sensitive equipment that we have now.  The ECRR scientists weren't able to get the standards changed even with better scientific evidence.  Scientists working on determining what radiation from different sources are doing to us are constrained to using standard terminology.  Didn't the ICRP publish a rebuttal to the ECRR?  That might be worth picking over for openings.
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."
Sometimes a design has a problem which some would see as a feature and others would see as a failure. Lack of public oversight or control over the nuclear industry is a big problem.
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."
Chernobyl: Crime without Punishment - the book excerpts highlight how the USSR minimized the health impacts by lying about dose and morbidity,  so badly,  that it seemed contaminated areas had better health than anyone else and the theory of hormesis was born from bad data.  An observation though, the government couldn't pay for the number of nuclear disabled even when official numbers said there weren't that many affected.  Most distressing was that damage to the fetus was far worse than expected.  More official number fudging and it became no worse than any other poor and distressed area.    

Code, I had to go searching for it, icrp response to ecrr.  This is the pdf I read, a rebuttal to ECRR.

Risks from Ionising Radiation - assets.publishing.service ...
example, in the HPA response to recommendations issued by the European Committee on Radiation Risks (ECRR; Green Audit). There is an extensive literature on the risks of radiation exposure, regularly reviewed by UNSCEAR, and providing a sound basis for the …

Recent recommendations from ICRP 2007


CaféRadLab came up a couple times in the search, http://caferadlab.com/thread-2168.html

Other reports I found in the search supporting ECRR.  

Position paper on radiation risk prepared by LLRC for ...
[ECRR 2003] to compensate for some of the shortcomings of the ICRP. In response the Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire has issued a report: xxxv

Limitations of ICRP Radiation Protection Standards
for Worker and Public Protection from Ionizing Radiation. by Rosalie Bertell, Ph.D., GNSH ... The strengths of the ICRP approach rest primarily on its ability to quickly convert a multidimensional problem, that is, a mixture of radionuclides, having a variety of energies and types of emissions, multiple pathways to humans, and a variety of ...

The Japanese response to the Fukushima disaster appears to be as bad or worse than the USSR's was.  The secrecy, lack of dosimetry, and falsified medical records will further hinder the gathering of data needed to understand the real health effects of radioactive exposure.  The strategy seems to be working.  Is that all we've learned in 80 years of splitting the atom?
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."

Forum Jump:

Browsing: 1 Guest(s)