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The Politics of Covid
Towards a Coronavirus-Based HIV Multigene Vaccine

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17162377/ 2006

https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/37416/reporting 2009
"Final Report Summary - AIDS-COVAC (Generation of a coronavirus-based multigene AIDS vaccine and evaluation in a preclinical SIV model)"

https://www.scientificamerican.com/artic...v-vaccine/ Fauci: HIV Vaccine Research "Swimming in the Dark" 2008

Fauci said that he nixed the trial, in part, because of the failure of Merck & Company's 3,000-person STEP vaccine trials in September. In lab tests, the Merck vaccine showed that immune system cells produced signaling proteins called cytokines when they came in contact with the vaccine. Researchers believed these so-called "correlates of immunity"—essentially signs that immune system was responding to the vaccine— indicated that it would fight infection.

They were wrong: The Merck vaccine proved ineffective at preventing infection or reducing levels of the virus in an infected person's body. The government-funded vaccine, known as PAVE (Partnership for AIDS Vaccine Evaluation), is formulated similarly to Merck's vaccine, consisting of three genes found in HIV attached to a weakened form of the common cold designed to draw the attention of the immune system. Originally set to be tested on 8,500 people, PAVE's trial was downsized to 2,400 soon after the failure of the Merck vaccine.


My latest conspiracy theory, which is subject to change*, is that a corona vector HIV vaccine candidate was administered to humans or mammals, which developed into a contagion (Covid-19) due to an unscrubbed or mutating vector, or some other unexpected reality. They were warned with the Ad5 trials. (Adenovirus and HIV splicing).

There are dozens of links on my desktop, of just how far the HIV vaccine industry has come. So many trials stopped, the latest causing more HIV in the participants!
So much time and money invested.
The lines blur between interest and integrity. Just a matter of time before things go terribly wrong - wrong enough that the negative results are no longer buried in a halted study paper- so wrong, the whole world becomes a study participant.

The other links will be forthcoming, as time permits.

They have found covid in some dogs now... More medical info forthcoming, also
*DK, your links and highlights rock... Perhaps you might find time to share some of them here.

Moderna and Takeda, all under Fauci NIH funding, were briefly outlined in another thread, regarding their financial ties to NIID, Fauci and each other.... Modernas drug trial for HIV was stopped, though Fauci had "advertised" its promise in the media and had awarded the grants. After a disappointing trial, Fauci has now elected them to develop an unprecedented, untested, unknown novel vaccine for covid. They had it within two months of the genetic code discovery and are now testing it on human volunteers.

https://www.genengnews.com/topics/omics/...oundation/ 2016


Adenovirus vaccines might be grabbing the limelight amid the coronavirus pandemic, but they have a checkered past.
When scientists began creating adenoviral vectors in the 1980s, most worked with a particular kind of adenovirus called Ad5, which ubiquitously infects humans and causes the common cold. Researchers stripped Ad5 of the genes it needed to replicate and inserted those genes into genetically engineered cell lines. That ensured that the modified viruses could be grown only in these special cells in the lab. It also opened up space in the Ad5 genome for scientists to stitch in new genes of their choosing.

Many scientists hoped to use Ad5 to deliver a human gene that could correct rare genetic mutations—an approach called gene therapy. Those efforts came to a grinding halt in 1999 when a teenage boy with a rare genetic liver disease died after receiving an injection of an Ad5-based gene therapy, which had been designed in James Wilson’s lab at the University of Pennsylvania.

Towards construction of viral vectors based on avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus for gene delivery and vaccine development.

J Virol Methods. 2009 Sep



Deborah L Birx patents...

Protein and peptide vaccines for inducing mucosal immunity

Vaccines against intracellular pathogens using antigens encapsulated within biodegradable-biocompatible microspheres


Deborah L Birx patents...

Protein and peptide vaccines for inducing mucosal immunity

Vaccines against intracellular pathogens using antigens encapsulated within biodegradable-biocompatible microspheres

GAITHERSBURG, Md., June 04, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Novavax, Inc. (NASDAQ: NVAX), a late-stage biotechnology company developing next-generation vaccines for serious infectious diseases, today announced that the company has been awarded a contract by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for the manufacturing of NVX‑CoV2373, Novavax’ COVID-19 vaccine candidate. NVX‑CoV2373 consists of a stable, prefusion protein antigen made using its proprietary nanoparticle technology and includes Novavax’ proprietary Matrix‑M™ adjuvant.

Vaccines against intracellular pathogens using antigens encapsulated within biodegradable-biocompatible microspheres

Patent number: RE40786

Abstract: This invention relates to parenteral and mucosal vaccines against diseases caused by intercellular pathogens using antigens encapsulated within a biodegradable-biocompatible microspheres(matrix).

Type: Grant

Filed: June 2, 2000

Date of Patent: June 23, 2009

Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army

Inventors: Paul R. Burnett, John E. van Hamont, Robert H. Reid, Jean A. Setterstrom, Thomas C. Van Cott, Deborah L. Birx

J&J’s vaccine has four components that target multiple strains of HIV, and Barouch has been developing it for about 15 years. He and Bette Korber, a computational biologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, designed an optimized set of “mosaic” proteins to go in the vaccine that would raise immune defenses against a wide variety of strains.
The vaccine uses a cold virus that’s altered to make the proteins that raise immunity. Study participants get six shots in four sessions.

“Conceptually it’s an interesting idea,” Fauci said. “There’s always excitement, but it should be saved for the results.”
‎July‎ ‎12‎, ‎2019‎

******** labs have ben playing with vaccine vectors, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, to splice HIV genes into for delivery to the immune system for well over a decade. Almost two.


https://www.medpagetoday.com/publichealt...sues/86594 States may be fudging data to give the false impression that the coronavirus is under control, the Associated Press reports.

In Virginia, Texas, and Vermont, officials are counting PCR and antibody tests together, to give an impression of increased testing, though this may mask the true extent of the spread. (Vermont and Virginia said they stopped combining the two types of tests in the past few days.)

In Florida, scientist Rebekah Jones -- who developed the state's coronavirus dashboard -- said she was fired for refusing to manipulate data to bolster plans to reopen.

In Georgia, a graph was doctored, with dates switched around, to make it look as if cases were going down and giving a false impression the the virus was under control. The state also regularly publishes a graph of infections, though new cases aren't listed on the day they come back positive. Instead, these are counted on the day the patient first reported symptoms.

"That practice can shift the timeline of the outbreak and make it appear as if the state is moving past the peak," according to AP.

Jennifer Nuzzo, DrPH, of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, said some of the practices may not be part of an effort to fool the public; for instance, state information systems may not allow for noting a difference between PCR versus antibody testing. Still, if states are lumping some numbers together when they shouldn't be, "you're not going to be able to make good decisions about re-opening and about what level of disease you have in the community."

COVID-19 Research: Study Finds That SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus Behaves Like HIV To Evade Immune Response May 27 https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/br...e-response

from the full scientific article link: "Some viruses leading to chronic infection, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), can disrupt antigen presentation for immune envision by down-regulating MHC-I on the surface of cells and evading the immune surveillance14–16. Given that SARS-CoV-2 exerts some characteristics of viruses causing chronic infection, we hypothesize that the viral protein(s) of SARS-CoV-2 may affect the antigen presentation system and assist the viruses to escape from immune surveillance. "


https://www.researchgate.net/publication...ata_and_ow Endogenous deficiency of glutathione as the most likely cause of serious manifestations and death in patients with the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19): a hypothesis based on literature data and own observations
Liposomal Glutathione Supplementation Restores TH1 Cytokine Response to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection in HIV-Infected Individuals


Cytokines are signaling biomolecules that serve as key regulators of our immune system. CD4(+) T-cells can be grouped into 2 major categories based on their cytokine profile: T-helper 1 (TH1) subset and T-helper 2 (TH2) subset. Protective immunity against HIV infection requires TH1-directed CD4 T-cell responses, mediated by cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Cytokines released by the TH1 subset of CD4 T-cells are considered important for mediating effective immune responses against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Oxidative stress and redox imbalance that occur during HIV infection often lead to inappropriate immune responses. Glutathione (GSH) is an antioxidant present in nearly all cells and is recognized for its function in maintaining redox homeostasis. Our laboratory previously reported that individuals with HIV infection have lower levels of GSH. In this study, we report a link between lower levels of GSH and dysregulation of TH1- and TH2-associated cytokines in the plasma samples of HIV-positive subjects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that supplementing individuals with HIV infection for 13 weeks with liposomal GSH (lGSH) resulted in a significant increase in the levels of TH1 cytokines, IL-1β, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. lGSH supplementation in individuals with HIV infection also resulted in a substantial decrease in the levels of free radicals and immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-β, relative to those in a placebo-controlled cohort. Finally, we determined the effects of lGSH supplementation in improving the functions of immune cells to control M. tb infection by conducting in vitro assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from HIV-positive individuals at post-GSH supplementation. Our studies establish a correlation between low levels of GSH and increased susceptibility to M. tb infection through TH2-directed response, which may be relieved with lGSH supplementation enhancing the TH1 response.
(06-08-2020, 11:45 AM)HHD Wrote: My latest conspiracy theory, which is subject to change*, is that a corona vector HIV vaccine candidate was administered to humans or mammals, which developed into a contagion (Covid-19) due to an unscrubbed or mutating vector, or some other unexpected reality. They were warned with the Ad5 trials. (Adenovirus and HIV splicing).

Hi HHD, so glad to see your insightful contributions again.  So it looked to me from the info released  that Covid-19 was likely to be one of those corona vector HIV vaccine candidates.  The question is what was the original payload to be delivered and how has it mutated?  The concerning part is that it's a mRNA vaccine, a retrovirus, and rewrites our DNA.  So many things could go wrong with that.  

I would also question this 'second wave' meme going around.  Some think the original release may have been as early as 2018 from Fort Detrick which was shutdown in 2019 attributed to failure of the steam sterilization plant.  The vaping crisis last summer bore the same symptoms as a Covid infection.  It might have been politically expedient to wait announcing a new virus threat until Wuhan, China could take the blame.  Winter brought on the second wave and panic ensued.  The Spring shutdown would not stop the virus spreading.  Still, it was a good excuse to bail out Wall Street, the failing banks and industries with another 5 to 10 Trillion dollar stimulus with the CARES act.  The two month lockdown and continuing restrictions wiped out 43 million paychecks and destroyed Main Street.  Summer 2020 might bring a small interlude in the spread and severity of the virus.  Corona virus thrive in cold dry environments and would be expected to re-surge again in the Fall.  

Yeah HHD, they've had many warnings and still they experiment on us and make us pay for it.
"The map is not the territory that it is a map of ... the word is not the thing being referred to."

This is a pdf about covid by an aacclaimed herbalist.
1/3 of it is a description of the disease, more sophisticated & accurate than mainstream medical models much earlier than theirs. This is a vascular inflammatory disease, not lung.
   Next third covers herbal treatment.
Last third is bibliography/references.

Attached Files Image(s)
don't stir up the hot particles
Journal of Medical Virology

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein counteracts BST2‐mediated restriction of virus‐like particle release
Shiu‐Mei Wang, Kuo‐Jung Huang, Chin‐Tien Wang

********First published: 14 June 2019********



BST2/tetherin, an interferon‐inducible antiviral factor, can block the cellular release of various enveloped viruses. We previously reported that human coronavirus 229E (HCoV‐229E) infection can alleviate the BST2 tethering of HIV‐1 virions by downregulating cell surface BST2, suggesting that coronaviruses are capable of encoding anti‐BST2 factors. Here we report our new finding that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS‐CoV) spike (S) glycoprotein, similar to Vpu, is capable of antagonizing the BST2 tethering of SARS‐CoV, HCoV‐229E, and HIV‐1 virus‐like particles via BST2 downregulation. However, unlike Vpu (which downmodulates BST2 by means of proteasomal and lysosomal degradation pathways), BST2 downregulation is apparently mediated by SARS‐CoV S through the lysosomal degradation pathway only. We found that SARS‐CoV S colocalized with both BST2 and reduced cell surface BST2, suggesting an association between SARS‐CoV S and BST2 that targets the lysosomal degradation pathway. According to one recent report, SARS‐CoV ORF7a antagonizes BST2 by interfering with BST2 glycosylation1. Our data provide support for the proposal that SARS‐CoV and other enveloped viruses are capable of evolving supplementary anti‐BST2 factors in a manner that requires virus replication. Further experiments are required to determine whether the BST2‐mediated restriction of authentic SARS‐CoV virions is alleviated by the SARS‐CoV spike protein.

BST2/tetherin inhibits the release of various enveloped viruses.

SARS‐CoV S antagonizes the BST2 tethering of human coronavirus and HIV‐1 virus‐like particles.

SARS‐CoV S colocalizes with BST2 and reduces cell surface BST2.

SARS‐CoV S downregulates BST2 through lysosomal degradation pathway.
Sound familiar?

We are going to develop a vaccine the same way we developed Covid, and expect different results.

The immunological response to common vectors is telling in how Covid may have developed to the pandemic it is.


Operation Warp Speed selects billionaire scientist’s COVID-19 vaccine for monkey tests

By Jon CohenJun. 1, 2020

...As with three other candidates on the WHO list, the NantKwest/ImmunityBio vaccine uses an adenovirus designated Ad5—one of a large family of viruses that cause some common colds—engineered to hold a gene for “spike,” the surface protein of SARS-CoV-2. This engineered Ad5 aims to infect cells, shuttling the spike gene into them. When the cells manufacture spike, it should trigger the production of antibodies against the virus and potentially other protective immune responses.

A drawback of Ad5 as a vaccine vector is that the virus has already spread widely through many populations. If people have preexisting Ad5 immunity, it can knock out the vector before it has a chance to infect cells and produce SARS-CoV-2 proteins. To counter that problem, an ImmunityBio subsidiary modified Ad5 by deleting several of its genes in an attempt to make it less visible to the immune system.

In another novel feature, Soon-Shiong’s group uses this altered Ad5 to deliver a second SARS-CoV-2 gene, for the nucleocapsid protein the virus uses to package its RNA. The researchers hope the nucleocapsid protein will boost what are known as T helper cells, which can supercharge the B cells that make antibodies.

Soon-Shiong contends that the second protein also strengthens the immune response to the key part of spike: the receptor-binding domain (RBD) that initiates the infection of human cells.

In SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses, spike studs the surface of the virus in three-leaf clovers of sorts called trimers. Structural biologists have shown these trimers typically have two RBDs facing down and only one turned up, making it most visible to the immune system. Soon-Shiong says the nucleocapsid in the vaccine preparation somehow interacts with spike and “pushes RBD out and probably exposes the downs into more up positions.” Data from preliminary studies in test tubes and mice, which Soon-Shiong shared at the investor meeting, suggest the strategy elicits a stronger immune response, he says.

Florian Krammer, whose lab at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai studies different COVID-19 vaccines in mice, says “adding the nucleocapsid is probably not a bad idea,” but he notes that spike itself can stimulate T cells. He also says three upfacing RBDs may be overkill. “I’m not sure if the up confirmation is making a huge difference,” Krammer says.

Andrew Ward, a structural biologist at Scripps Research whose lab has helped characterize spike on several coronaviruses, also questions whether RBDs in actual viruses really are arranged in the one up-two down configuration. The idea may reflect sampling bias, he says. Structural biologists select from a population of spike proteins in a solution, and one up-two down are the easiest ones for them to characterize. “You’re selecting for things that are most well behaved,” Ward says. “People are taking a huge leap from those structures.”

Some researchers also worry about the Ad5 vector itself because of bad results in a 2007 trial of an HIV vaccine made with the vector, in which more vaccinated people became infected than those who received a placebo shot. Many immunologists suspect the Ad5 led to an especially large increase in CD4 T cells, the favorite target of HIV. Conceivably, any COVID-19 vaccine that uses the Ad5 vector could increase the risk of HIV infection. Soon-Shiong says his vaccine’s modified Ad5 won’t cause this problem, although his companies have yet to publish evidence to support that.

More, PLUS Politics, at the link.

Final Report Summary - AIDS-COVAC (Generation of a coronavirus-based multigene AIDS vaccine and evaluation in a preclinical SIV model)
Coronaviruses spread via mucosal surfaces and can infect dendritic cells. These features and their exceptional transcription strategy make them extremely promising candidate vaccine vectors to overcome known problems of current HIV vaccine approaches. The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States (US), have supported partner 1 during the years 2004-2006 to pursue this research line in the murine coronavirus system because of its innovation potential and since US researchers had not yet started to work in this direction. The European perspective of this project was thus to further promote this specific research line in Europe in order to pave the way for the generation of coronavirus-based HIV vaccines in humans. The AIDS-COVAC consortium's major aim was to generate a novel coronavirus-based HIV vaccine vector that is optimised for host entry by targeting professional antigen-presenting cells, namely Dendritic cells (DCs). Recombinant coronavirus vectors in the context of a simian model could serve as a paradigm for the development and evaluation of coronavirus-based HIV vaccines.

The consortium consisted of three scientific partners with well-matched, complementary, expertise and resources covering:
(i) the knowledge on coronavirus biology, reverse genetics and vector construction;
(ii) an ample expertise on DC-based vaccination in murine models and human clinical trials;
(iii) state-of-the-art technology to assess vector-DC interactions; and
(iv) animal facilities and comprehensive experience for the evaluation of candidate AIDS vaccines in pre-clinical studies in monkeys.
...The knowledge of HIV biology generated over the last two decades has paved the way for rational vaccine design. Progress in the understanding of basic immunological mechanisms underlying antigen presentation, lymphocyte trafficking and activation, and immunological memory has been instrumental for the identification of parameters that ensure induction of protective antiviral immunity. Taken together, an HIV vaccine should:
- target and activate DCs;
- contain immunodominant CTL and Th cell antigens;
- display antigenic determinants to induce broadly neutralising antibody responses;
- be applicable via mucosal surfaces.

Coronaviral vectors display a number of features that make them particularly promising candidates for a new class of highly immunogenic viral multigene expression vectors. First, replication of these positive-stranded RNA viruses is restricted to the cytoplasm without a DNA intermediary, making insertion of viral sequences into the host cell genome unlikely. Second, there is accumulating knowledge on how to attenuate coronaviruses in order to provide biosafe vectors. Third, coronavirus genomes with a size of 27-31 kb represent the largest autonomously replicating RNAs known to date and thus offer a cloning capacity of more than 6 kb. Fourth, the unique transcription process generates 6-8 subgenomic mRNAs encoding for the canonical four structural proteins and a variable number of accessory proteins which can be replaced to encode multiple heterologous proteins. Fifth, the first target of coronaviruses in their natural hosts is the mucosa, suggesting that coronavirus vectors are applicable via mucosal surfaces. Finally and certainly most intriguing, cell surface receptors of human and murine coronaviruses are expressed on human and murine DCs, respectively.


The AIDS-COVAC consortium has focused its objectives on the development of a novel coronavirus-based HIV vaccine vector that is optimised for vector entry into the host by targeting and activation of DCs. In addition, it was planned to provide proof-of-principle for the efficacy of this strategy by testing the prototype vaccine in the simian AIDS model.

Guess we wont be talking about defunding the ones who got us into this. We have now enlisted them to oversee the directive. The very same actors. Guess they wont be going to jail and no one will be protesting the vulnerability of human subjects then, or now, either.... Derp.
Fauci on AIDS vaccine:

In terms of the priorities you outlined in the Science article, what's the top one on that list that you would want to achieve to moving the field forward?
The highest priority is a neutralizing antibody response. That brings in everything from getting the [virus's] crystallographic structure and the confirmation of the envelope to understanding how you could scaffold the epitope [antigen surface eliciting an immune response] of that particular binding site into something that's immunogenic. That, to me, is really the highest priority.

So, you want it all?
Chinese scientists desperately researching coronavirus discover that it shares human cell binding site with HIV, Ebola
27 Feb, 2020
Studies Show that Vaccinated Individuals Spread Disease. Should the Recently Vaccinated be Quarantined to Prevent Outbreaks?

WASHINGTON, D.C. –February 2, 2015
HIV-1 STEP Vaccine Trial Failure Blamed on Adenovirus Shell

Becky McCall
November 18, 2009***

Public-private partnership begins HIV vaccine clinical trial in Sub-Saharan Africa

Cape Town | A second large clinical trial to assess whether an experimental HIV vaccine regimen is safe, tolerable and able to prevent HIV infection is underway in the southern region of the African continent. This new Phase 2b proof-of-concept study, called Imbokodo, aims to enroll 2,600 HIV-negative women aged 18 to 35 years in sub-Saharan Africa and will be implemented at clinical trial sites through the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) funded HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN).

Of 1.8 million new HIV infections worldwide in 2016, 43 percent occurred in eastern and southern Africa, with women and girls disproportionately affected. The first Imbokodo participants have received vaccinations at clinical research sites in South Africa, while regulatory processes are underway to conduct the study in Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe. With the start of Imbokodo, two HIV vaccine efficacy trials now are taking place in sub-Saharan Africa. Results from the ongoing Phase 2b/3 HVTN 702 study, which launched late last year and is enrolling HIV-negative men and women in South Africa, are expected in late 2020. Results from Imbokodo are expected in 2021.

“Imbokodo,” the Zulu word for rock, is part of a well-known proverb in South Africa that refers to the strength of women and their importance in the community: Wathint’ abafazi, wathint’ imbokodo. You strike the women, you strike the rock.

The study is sponsored by Janssen Vaccines & Prevention, B.V., part of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, with co-funding from two primary partners, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

The NIAID-funded HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN), headquartered at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, is implementing Imbokodo.
The SAMRC provides both direct and indirect support to Imbokodo. The SAMRC will support the access to PrEP at the clinical trial sites, and is directly supporting the Mthatha clinical trial site. The SAMRC also supports community engagement at the trial sites and facilitates interests at the national and regional levels.
Additional partners providing support include the U.S. Military HIV Research Program at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, the U.S. Army Medical Materiel Development Activity, and the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard.
For more information about Imbokodo, also known as HVTN 705/HPX2008, please visit https://www.imbokodo.org.za or see ClinicalTrials.gov using identifier NCT03060629.


“A safe and effective HIV vaccine would be a powerful tool to reduce new HIV infections worldwide and help bring about a durable end to the HIV/AIDS pandemic,” said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. “By exploring multiple promising avenues of vaccine development research, we expand our opportunities to achieve these goals.”

APPROACH involved nearly 400 volunteers in the United States, Rwanda, Uganda, South Africa and Thailand who were randomly assigned to receive one of seven experimental vaccine regimens or a placebo.
In APPROACH, study participants received four vaccinations over 48 weeks: two doses of an initial, or “prime,” vaccine, followed by two doses of a booster vaccine. The experimental regimens all incorporated the same vaccine components in the prime vaccination, known as Ad26.Mos.HIV. The vaccine uses a strain of common-cold virus (adenovirus serotype 26, or Ad26), engineered so that it does not cause illness, as a vector to deliver three mosaic antigens created from genes from many HIV variants. The booster vaccination included various combinations of the Ad26.Mos.HIV components or a different mosaic component, called MVA-Mosaic, and/or two different doses of clade C HIV gp140 envelope protein containing an aluminum adjuvant to boost immune responses.

The Ad26-based mosaic vaccines were initially developed by the laboratory of NIAID grantee Dan H. Barouch, M.D., Ph.D., and Janssen. In pre-clinical studies, regimens incorporating these mosaic vaccines protected monkeys against infection with an HIV-like virus called simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). The most effective prime-boost regimen reduced the risk of infection per exposure to SHIV by 94 percent and resulted in 66 percent complete protection after six exposures. Researchers identified and characterized the vaccine-induced immune responses that correlated with this protection.

“The promising, early-stage results from the APPROACH study support further evaluation of these candidate vaccines to assess their ability to protect those at risk of acquiring HIV,” said Dr. Barouch, a principal investigator for APPROACH. He also is director of the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston and professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.

Following the third vaccination, most APPROACH participants had developed antibody and cellular immune responses against HIV. The different boost vaccines altered the magnitude and character of these immune responses, with the regimen that showed greatest protection in monkey studies also eliciting among the greatest immune responses in humans. The anti-HIV immune responses increased after the fourth vaccination.

The researchers conclude that further evaluation of this approach would use a regimen comprising two Ad26 mosaic primes and two boosts with Ad26 mosaic and clade C gp140. The ongoing TRAVERSE trial is comparing Ad26-based regimens containing three mosaic antigens (trivalent) with Ad26-based regimens containing four mosaic antigens (tetravalent). Results from TRAVERSE are expected in late 2017.

Other support for APPROACH comes from the NIAID-funded HIV Vaccine Trials Network, the U.S. Military HIV Research Program, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard. For more information about APPROACH, see ClinicalTrials.gov using identifier NCT02315703. For more information about TRAVERSE, see ClinicalTrials.gov using identifier NCT02788045.


Prefusion Coronavirus Spike Proteins and Their Use

Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe respiratory disease with high fatality rates in humans. The 2002-2003 SARS-CoV epidemic resulted in 8098 cases and 744 deaths, and MERS-CoV, which emerged in 2012, has resulted in 2144 cases and over 750 deaths as of March 2018. Currently, there are no effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures, and because other CoVs are poised to emerge as new human pathogens, there is a need to define a general CoV vaccine solution. Past efforts to develop CoV vaccines have used whole-inactivated virus, live-attenuated virus, recombinant protein subunit, or genetic approaches.

CoV spike (S) proteins mediate cellular attachment and membrane fusion and are therefore the target of protective antibodies. Inventors at the Vaccine Research Center of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have developed a novel CoV S protein vaccine antigen. This technology employs protein engineering to stabilize S in its prefusion conformation, preventing structural rearrangement, and exposing antigenically preferable surfaces. The technology has been applied to several CoV spikes, including those from human-relevant viruses, such as HKU1-CoV, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. Particularly for MERS-COV, stabilized S proteins have been shown to elicit superior neutralizing antibody responses up to 10-fold higher in animal models and protect mice against lethal MERS-CoV infection. This technology is applicable for delivery via other platforms, such as mRNA.

This technology is available for licensing for commercial development in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR part 404, as well as for further development and evaluation under a research collaboration.

Potential Commercial Applications: Competitive Advantages:
The stabilized prefusion coronavirus spike protein can be used as a vaccine antigen to elicit robust neutralizing antibody responses.

Improved immunogenicity compared to other coronavirus S vaccine formulations.
Increased protein expression, stability, and manufacturability compared to wild-type CoV S.


Hadi Yassine (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Kizzmekia Corbett (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Michael Joyce (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Jason McLellan

Barney Graham (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Masaru Kanekiyo (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Andrew Ward

Christopher Cottrell

Nianshuang Wang

Jesper Pallesen

Hannah Turner

Robert Kirchdoerfer

Intellectual Property:
US Application No. 62/412,703
PCT Application No. PCT/US2017/058370
US Application No. 16/344,774

Collaboration Opportunity:
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate or commercialize coronavirus diagnostics or vaccines. For collaboration opportunities, please contact Amy Petrik, Ph.D., 240-627-3721; amy.petrik@nih.gov.

Licensing Contact:
Amy Petrik, Ph.D., J.D.
Email: amy.petrik@nih.gov
Phone: 240-627-3721

OTT Reference No: E-234-2016-0
Updated: Apr 8, 2020


Recombinant HIV-1 Envelope Protein for Vaccine Use

In pursuit of an effective vaccine to end the global HIV-1/AIDS pandemic, researchers at the Vaccine Research Center (“VRC”) continue to study the structure of HIV-1. Recently, these researchers have determined the three-dimensional structure of the HIV-1 Envelope trimeric ectodomain (“Env”), comprised of three gp120 and three gp41 subunits, in its prefusion, mature, closed conformation.

The researchers hypothesize that immunization with the prefusion, closed HIV-1 Env protein will elicit a neutralizing immune response. The VRC researchers engineered a portion of the HIV-1 Env trimer to stabilize it in this closed conformation for use as an immunogen.

This technology is available for licensing for commercial development in accordance with 35 U.S.C. § 209 and 37 CFR Part 404, as well as for further development and evaluation under a research collaboration.

Potential Commercial Applications: Competitive Advantages:
Vaccine for prevention of HIV-1 infection.
Therapeutic vaccine for treatment of HIV-1 infection.

Currently, no licensed HIV-1 vaccine exists.


Peter Kwong (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Marie Pancera (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Tongqing Zhou (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Ivelin Georgiev (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Michael Joyce (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Priyamvada Acharya (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Jason Gorman (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

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Ulrich Baxa (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

John Mascola (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Rebecca Lynch (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Baoshan Zhang (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Cheng Cheng (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Intellectual Property:
US Application No. 62/046,059
US Application No. 62/136,480
PCT Application No. PCT/US2015/048729
US Application No. 15/508,885
US Application No. 16/557,894

Pancera M, et al. PMID 25296255

Collaboration Opportunity:
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize HIV-1 immunogens for treating or preventing HIV-1 infection. For collaboration opportunities, please contact Dr. Barry Buchbinder, 240-627-3674; barry.buchbinder@nih.gov.

Licensing Contact:
Barry Buchbinder, Ph.D.
Email: BBuchbinder@niaid.nih.gov
Phone: 301-496-2644

OTT Reference No: E-178-2014-0
Updated: Oct 18, 2018

Novel Multivalent Nanoparticle Vaccines

Current seasonal influenza vaccines are designed to elicit immunity to circulating strains of influenza each year. The targeted strains are selected based on predictions of which strains are likely to be predominant in the human population for a given year. This prediction must be made well ahead of the influenza season to allow time for vaccine production and can be inaccurate.

Scientists at NIAID's Vaccine Research Center are developing an alternative approach for design and production of seasonal influenza vaccines. The design includes recombinant fusion proteins that self-assemble into nanoparticles with influenza antigenic proteins displayed on the nanoparticle surface (Nature 499, 102-106 (2013)). Further engineering these recombinant fusion proteins, the scientists have developed nanoparticles that simultaneously display multiple strains of influenza viral protein antigens (the receptor-binding domain of hemagglutinin) on their surface. Due to the heterogeneity of the antigenic protein derived from multiple strains, these nanoparticles are referred to as mosaic nanoparticles.

Upon immunization of mice with mosaic nanoparticles displaying antigens from eight different H1N1 strains, the elicited antibodies neutralized a panel of H1N1 strains from 1918 through 2009 including the strains that had not been displayed on the mosaic nanoparticle. However, mice immunized with a mixture of the eight types of nanoparticles, each displaying a single antigenic protein, did not elicit a similar breadth of neutralizing antibody response.

NIAID is continuing development of these vaccine candidates through animal studies and moving toward clinical evaluation.

This technology is available for licensing for commercial development in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR part 404, as well as for further development and evaluation under a research collaboration.

Potential Commercial Applications: Competitive Advantages:
Vaccine platform for seasonal influenza with broader protection coverage

Nucleic acid or recombinant protein-based vaccine
Increased ease of production compared to current seasonal influenza vaccines

Related Invention(s):


Masaru Kanekiyo (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Barney Graham (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Hadi Yassine (NIAID) ➽ more inventions...

Intellectual Property:
US Application No. 15/540,898
PCT Application No. PCT/US2015/068272
US Application No. 62/098,755
Various international patent applications may also be available.

Kanekiyo, M, et al. Manuscript under revision.

Licensing Contact:
Amy Petrik, Ph.D., J.D.
Email: amy.petrik@nih.gov
Phone: 240-627-3721

OTT Reference No: E-060-2015-0
Updated: Jun 22, 2018


Wednesday, January 24, 2018

Study links gut-homing protein levels with HIV infection risk, disease progression

NIH clinical trial is testing antibody against the protein in people with HIV.

Healthy Human T Cell
Scanning electron micrograph of a human T lymphocyte (also called a T cell) from the immune system of a healthy donor. NIAID
For the first time, scientists have shown a relationship between the proportion of key immune cells that display high levels of a gut-homing protein called alpha-4 beta-7 at the time of HIV infection and health outcomes. Previous research illustrated this relationship in monkeys infected with a simian form of HIV.

The new study found that women who had more CD4+ T cells displaying high levels of alpha-4 beta-7 on their surface were more likely to become infected with HIV, and the virus damaged their immune systems more rapidly, than women with fewer such cells. The National Institutes of Health co-funded the study with the South African Medical Research Council as part of the U.S.–South Africa Program for Collaborative Biomedical Research. In addition, NIH scientists collaborated on the study. The report appears online today in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

“Our findings suggest that having a high frequency of alpha-4 beta-7-expressing CD4+ T cells, which HIV preferentially infects, leads to more HIV-infected CD4+ T cells moving to the gut, which in turn leads to extensive damage to gut-based immune cells,” said Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. Dr. Fauci co-authored the paper as chief of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of NIH. He also is director of NIAID.

The study was led by Lyle McKinnon, Ph.D., and Aida Sivro, Ph.D., both researchers at the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) in Durban, South Africa. Dr. McKinnon is also an assistant professor in the Rady Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada, and an honorary lecturer at the University of Nairobi in Kenya.

The research team compared the percentage of CD4+ T cells displaying high levels of alpha-4 beta-7 in blood samples drawn from 59 women shortly before they acquired HIV to the percentage of such cells in 106 women who remained HIV negative. Aged 18 to 40 years, the women were selected from participants in the CAPRISA 004 study(link is external), which evaluated the safety and efficacy of tenofovir gel for HIV prevention in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, from 2007 to 2010. Understanding HIV acquisition and disease progression among African women is especially important because women accounted for nearly 60 percent of new HIV infections among adults in sub-Saharan Africa in 2016.

The proportion of CD4+ T cells with high levels of alpha-4 beta-7 had an effect, albeit modest, on the risk of acquiring HIV among both the women in the CAPRISA 004 study and a separate cohort of 41 female sex workers in Kenya. The risk of HIV acquisition rose by 18 percent for each one percent increase in alpha-4 beta-7 protein. The authors show a similar association in monkeys that were vaginally exposed to a simian form of HIV.

The proportion of CD4+ T cells with high levels of alpha-4 beta-7 strongly affected how quickly HIV damaged the immune system. CD4+ T cell levels declined twice as fast among women with higher pre-infection levels of alpha-4 beta-7 as among women with lower pre-infection levels. In addition, the amount of HIV in the blood within a few months of infection was greater in women with higher pre-infection levels of alpha-4 beta-7 than in women with lower pre-infection levels. The mechanism for the immune system damage likely was HIV-related damage to the gut, the scientists report, as higher pre-infection levels of alpha-4 beta-7 were associated with higher levels of a biological marker of gut damage.

The scientists found that HIV targets CD4+ T cells displaying alpha-4 beta-7 very early in infection, particularly in the gut. In this regard, the researchers looked at data from the U.S. Military HIV Research Program-led RV254 clinical trial at the Thai Red Cross in Bangkok, Thailand, and found that starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) right after HIV diagnosis did not prevent the depletion of CD4+ T cells from the gut or facilitate reconstitution of the depleted cells.

“These findings suggest that interventions in addition to ART may be needed to restore CD4+ T cells in the GI tracts of people living with HIV,” said Dr. McKinnon. “One such intervention could be an anti-alpha-4 beta-7 antibody called vedolizumab, which is FDA-approved for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.”

In previous studies led by Dr. Fauci and Aftab A. Ansari, Ph.D., of Emory University in Atlanta, a monkey-adapted form of vedolizumab contributed to the near-replenishment in monkeys of CD4+ T cells that had been destroyed by a simian form of HIV. Based on this and related findings, NIAID initiated an early-phase clinical trial in 2017 to determine whether short-term treatment with vedolizumab in combination with ART could generate sustained HIV remission in people living with HIV. The study is taking place at the NIH Clinical Research Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Preliminary results are expected later this year. More information about the study is available at ClinicalTrials.gov under study identifier NCT02788175.

NIAID conducts and supports research — at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide — to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. News releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID website.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov.

NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health®


A Sivro et al. Integrin α4β7 expression on peripheral blood CD4+ T cells predicts HIV acquisition and disease progression outcomes. Science Translational Medicine DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aam6354 (2018).

Science Translational Medicine 11 Sep 2019:
Vol. 11, Issue 509, eaax3447
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aax3447

An open-label phase 1 clinical trial of the anti-α4β7 monoclonal antibody vedolizumab in HIV-infected individuals
May 2016
Large-Scale HIV Vaccine Trial to Launch in South Africa

NIH-Funded Study Will Test Safety, Efficacy of Vaccine Regimen

P5 stands for the Pox-Protein Public-Private Partnership, a diverse set of public and private organizations committed to building on the success of the RV144 trial. The P5 aims to produce an HIV vaccine that could have a significant public health benefit and to deepen scientists’ understanding of the immune responses associated with preventing HIV infection. HVTN 100 and HVTN 702 are part of the P5 research program.

P5 members are NIAID, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), the South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC), HVTN, Sanofi Pasteur, GSK and the U.S. Military HIV Research Program. NIAID, BMGF and SAMRC fund the P5.


Wednesday, April 1, 2020
The SAMRC mourns the loss of eminent scientist Prof Gita Ramjee

Cape Town | The South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) is deeply saddened by the passing of Professor Gita Ramjee, a world-renowned HIV scientist and researcher who has led groundbreaking work in HIV prevention. We express our heartfelt condolences to the family, friends and colleagues of Professor Ramjee, who passed away in hospital because of health complications related to COVID-19. She recently returned from the United Kingdom.

Professor Ramjee was a Chief Specialist Scientist and had been the Director of the HIV Prevention Research Unit (HPRU). She joined the SAMRC in 1996. Under her leadership at the SAMRC Professor Ramjee’s KwaZulu-Natal based team hosts five of 20 HIV Vaccine Trial Network sites across the country as a part of a global scientific journey to find an effective HIV vaccine. The team is also testing a novel long acting injectable for the prevention of HIV in three communities across the greater Durban area.
What a circus!

Structural similarity between HIV-1 gp41 and SARS-CoV S2 proteins suggests an analogous membrane fusion mechanism

Author links open overlay panelXueWu ZhangYeeLeng Yap

It has been shown that that there are some similar structural motifs in HIV-1 gp41 and SARS-CoV S2 protein [4], [5]: (1) N-terminal leucine/isoleucine heptad repeat sequence on residues 913–1000; (2) C-terminal leucine/isoleucine heptad repeat motif on residues 1151–1185. While our results reveal that SARS-CoV S2 and HIV gp41 share very similar helix structure on residues 879–942, these discoveries suggest a similar membrane fusion mechanism for the two viruses.

Naturally, a question arises: could the inhibitors for anti-HIV-1 therapy be used to fight against SARS-CoV? For example, GGL, a HIV-1 specific cell entry inhibitor that can bind to the coiled-coil core of gp41 and efficiently inhibit HIV-1 envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion [12], and another D-peptide inhibitor, which targets the gp41 coiled-coil pocket and inhibits HIV-1 entry [13]. Fig. 3 showed the binding interaction between GGL and S2 protein, the residues involved are: 901–918. Fig. 4 showed the binding interaction between D-peptide and S2 protein, the residues involved are: 899–915. This suggests GGL and D-peptide inhibitors from HIV-1 gp41 could be used as potential inhibitors for SARS-CoV entry.
HI HHD, if it does not fit here let me know pls

'Heartbreaking,' Say Global Experts, Alarmed at Signs US Has 'Given Up' Fight to Stop Covid-19 

Extinction foretold.. Extinction ignored.. 
Alleged US lockdown is liability prevention. Though, there never was a "lockdown". Bottlenecking civilization to the grocer, is not a lockdown.

The unprecedented global move to prevent infecting humans with this "coronavirus" could only have happened, were it man-made and posing a liability. We're it a natural mutation/cross-over, SARS, MERS, flu pandemic, etc, to each his own and the agencies will provide recommendations- the extent of their liability. In this case, however, rediculous measures and controls were installed, including war time acts, marshal laws, business closures, etc. They had to decide food or covid. So we were bottlnecked to the "mandatory establishments", free to travel within our communities and nationally- and the liability now falls on the mocked crowds on beaches and precincts. Your choice.

At any rate, the entire scam is liability prevention. All of it. Truth be damned.

Los Alamos? Great.
And a pathology ridden monster making it worse at every turn without limits. For its own country and the world..please take him out.. 

Psychopath :

Conscience defect..unable to feel guilt. (I don't take any responsibility at all) 

Total absence of empathy. 

Sees other humans as objects to use as he please without any value. 

--à psychopath goes to a funeral and falls in love with a stranger but did dent get the chance to connect and exchange contact info.. 

The same day he/she kills his/her family member..WHY?..

Maybe a new funeral will bring the desired object back.. 


Senators Find Unspent $14 Billion After Trump Admits to Slowing COVID Testing

Extinction foretold.. Extinction ignored.. 

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